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UM PSYX 230 - Developmental Psychology 02.03.2015 Lecture Notes

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Developmental PsychologyDr. Erin YosaiFebruary 3, 2015 Bobo doll video – BBCFour Social Learning Theory Children tend to imitate what they see Television violence Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory Theoretical orientation emphasizing the active construction of psychological structures to interpret experience Self-directed knowledge Discontinuous theory Infants – Touch, taste, sound Piaget on Piaget video 1977 film (French) Human knowledge Empiricist – “Blank slate” Knowledge through experience Innatist – “Nature” Knowledge through genetics We build representations of the world around us based on our cognitive capacity (knowledge) Basic Principles of cognitive development Adaptation: Interplay between assimilation and accommodation, resulting in development Organization: Tendency for structures and processes to become more systematic and coherent  Scheme: Organized pattern of thought or behavior Assimilation: Person interprets new ideas or experiences to fit existing schemes Accommodation: Person changes existing schemes to fit new ideas or experiences Equilibration: Harmonious balance of a person’s schemes and experiences with the environment Humans are “cognitive misers” – we don’t want to do more work cognitively Video – Piaget’s Stages of Development “Conservation” stage Bigger is better, bigger means more “Perspective taking” Erickson’s Psychological Approach The start of the last of the theories Greater focus on emotions and personality Gives Socialization and society far greater importance in his theory A common theme is the search for identity Systems Approaches Contextual Approaches Ecological Systems Theory (Bronfenbrenner) Sociocultural Theory (Vygotsky) Dynamic Systems Theory Ethological Theory Bronfenbrenner’s Theory Bio ecological model – development is influenced by experiences rising from broader biological, social, and cultural systems as well as a child’s immediate surroundings Microsystem – the immediate environment provided in such settings as the home, school, workplace, and neighborhood Mesosystem – the environment provided by the interrelationships among the various settings of the microsystem Exosystem – environmental settings that indirectly affect the child by influencing the various microsystems forming the child’s immediate environment Macrosystem – major historical events and the broad values, practices, and customs shared by a culture Chronosystem - the constantly changing temporal component of the environment that can influence development Sociocultural Theory (Vygotsky) Emphasizes the importance of cultural tools, symbols, and ways of thinking that the child acquires from more knowledgeable members of the community Dynamic Systems Theory Emphasizes development as the emerging organization arising from the interaction of many different processes Ethological Theory Ethology is concerned with the evolutionary origins of behavior and its adaptive and survival value in animals, including humans Sensitive period – a brief period during which specific kinds of experiences have significant positive or negative consequences for development and behavior Also known as the critical period


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