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O-K-State CDIS 3123 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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CDIS 3123 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 8Chapters 1- Audiology is a hearing health-care profession with a mission of evaluating hearing ability and amelioration of impairment resulting from hearing disorders.- Audiologists are concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of hearing disorders resulting from hearing loss.- Qualifications for audiologists include an academic degree, clinical education, and appropriate licensure or other credential.- Diagnosis of hearing loss involves determining the type and degree of hearing impairment.- Activities such as determination of candidacy for hearing instrumentation, programming hearing devices, auditory training, and education are examples of aural rehabilitation.- Participation by an audiologist as an expert witness is known as forensic audiology.- Audiologists are involved in the design, implementation, and coordination of occupational and military hearing conservation programs, which are aimed at the identification and amelioration of hazardous noise exposure.- An autonomous profession is one that is independent from the oversight of other professions.o Audiology is an autonomous profession.- Some audiologists are employed physicians who specialize in otorhinolaryngology, or its subspecialty that focuses only on disorders of the ear, otology.o Otorhinolaryngology is the disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.o These field are closely aligned because many people with ear disease also have hearing impairments and vice versa.- Audiologists frequently work closely with speech-language pathologists.o Speech-language pathologists are professionals who provide evaluation and rehabilitation for communication disorders resulting from speech and/or language impairment.- The Au.D. is the degree designator for audiologists. - The process by which a nongovernment agency or association grants recognition to an individual meeting specified qualifications is known as certification.- In the process known as licensure, a government agency grants permission to engage in a specific profession.o Licensure provides the legal right for a professional to practice.- The audiogram and the pure-tone audiometer were developed in the 1920s and 1930s by C.C. Bunch.Chapter 2- Sound occurs as a result of pressure waves which emanate from a force applied to a sound source.- Energy is transferred through a medium that has the properties of mass and elasticity.o Energy is defined as the ability to do work.- The density of air molecules increases during condensation (or compression) and decreases during rarefaction. - The periodic back and forth motion of molecules that are set into motion by a sound variation is called simple harmonic motion.- The property of intensity describes the magnitude of a sound.o Its psychophysical equivalent is loudness.o On a waveform it is represented as amplitude.- The property of frequency describes speed of molecular vibration.o Its psychophysical equivalent is pitch.- The property of phase describes the location at any point in time of displacement of an air molecule during simple harmonic motion.- The ear consists of three major components: the outer, inner, and middle ear.- The auricle, external auditory canal, and tympanic membrane together make up the outer ear.- The bones of the middle ear space are collectively known as the ossicles.o The three bones, called the malleus, incus, and stapes, are the smallest bones in the body.- The cochlea is the snail shaped space in the petrous portion of the temporal bone that consists of 2.5 turns.o The three compartments of the cochlea are the scala vestibule, scala media, and scala tympani.o There are two fluids in the cochlea. Perilymph exists in the scala vestibule. Endolymph exists in the scala media.o The two types of hair cells in the cochlea are the inner and outer hair cells.- The audiovestibular nerve is the VIII cranial nerve.o It carries sensory information from the cochlea to the auditory brainstem.- Organization of nerve fibers according to frequency is called tonotopic organization.o Tonotopic organization exists throughout all levels of the auditory system.- The threshold of a sound is the level at which a stimulus is just sufficient to produce a sensation.o The threshold is generally measured as the level at which sound can be heard 50% of the time presented.- The graph used to plot audiometric test results is known as the audiogram.o The audiogram shows the threshold of hearing sensitivity as a function of frequency.- A sensorineural hearing loss is demonstrated when air-conduction and bone-conductionthresholds are affected similarly.o A conductive hearing loss is demonstrated when air-conduction thresholds are worse than bone-conduction thresholds.- The vestibular system is responsible for the maintenance of balance along with the visual and somatosensory systems.- The sensory organ of the otoliths is the macula.o The macula exists in the utricle and saccule.- The sensory organ of the semicircular canals is the crista of the ampulla.The link below gives a virtual tour of the ear and explains what happens in each step. This will help bring together all of the information about the anatomy of the


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