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Southern Miss GHY 104 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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GHY 104 1st Edition Exam #1 Study GuideIntro to Geography- Spatial Analysis- is the techniques applied to structures at the human scale, most notably in the analysis of geographic data.- Geographers study patterns and processes on the Earth’s surface using spatial- Geography- Geo means “Earth” and graphies means “ to make” or “to graph”- The science that studies the relationships among: Natural systems Geographic areas Society Cultural activities Interdependence of all of these over time and/or space- Geography: diverse and eclectic- Holistic (balance, synthesis)- Eclectic (diverse)- Why study Geography?- Desire to explore and understand the world- Holistic nature of geography enables us to study our biggest challengesEarth and Geographic Grid- The Four Spheres- Atmosphere- gaseous layer that surrounds the earth All aspects of weather and climate- Hydrosphere- covers all aspects of water and bodies of water- Lithosphere- the solid Earth, sculpted into various landforms- Biosphere- encompasses all living organisms of the Earth- Latitude- Latitude is the angular distance north or south of the equator measured from the center of the south- The equator is the line of latitude that divides the earth exactly in half between the poles and is designated as 0⁰- Longitude- Longitude is the angular distance east or west of a point on the earth’s surface measured from the center of the earth - A line connecting all points of the same longitude is called a meridian- The prime meridian running through Greenwich, England is designated as 0⁰- Great Circles- Shortest distance between any two points on the planet is an arc (portion)- Standard time & time zones- Necessary for coordination of international trade, airline, schedules, business, and daily living- International date line is the 180⁰ meridian (opposite the prime meridian)- Hattiesburg latitude & longitude- 31⁰ N, 89⁰ W- Perihelion – closet at January 3- Aphelion – farthest at July 4Earth Orbit and Electromagnetic Spectrum - Shortwave and Longwave Energy- Sun radiates shortwave energy- Shorter wavelengths have higher energy - Earth (and everything on it) radiates longwave energy- Longer wavelength have lower energy- Earth’s energy budget- Objects radiate energy in wavelengths related to their surface temperatures - Hotter objects = shorter wavelengths- Surface of sun = hotter; short wavelengths- Surface of earth – cooler; longer wavelengths- Reasons for Seasons- Revolution Earth revolves around the Sun Voyage takes one year Earth’s speed is 107, 280 kmph Forms plane of the ecliptic- Rotation 24 hours to complete 1 rotation at 1041 mph at equator - Tilt of Earth’s axis Axis is tilted 23.5⁰ from the plane of the ecliptic, one of the most important concepts Axis connects North and South Poles- Axial parallelism Axis maintains alignment during orbit around the Sun The Earth’s axis points toward the North star (Polaris) - Sphericity Produces uneven receipt of isolation- Subsolar point: the point on the Earth’s surface where the sun is directly overhead, forming a 90⁰angleSeasons and Atmosphere- Winter Solstice – December 21 or 22- Subsolar point = Tropic of Capricorn- Spring Equinox – March 20 or 21- Subsolar point = Tropic of Cancer- Fall Equinox – September 22 or 23- Subsolar point = Equator- Rotational Velocity- Moon and Earth Counter Clockwise- Linear velocity varies with latitude- The 60th parallel is ½ length of equator, so rotational velocity is only 520 mph- Sun Angle and Subsolar Point - The subsolar point can only range between 23.5⁰ N and 23.5⁰ S. During the equinoxes, the subsolar point is located directly on the equator.- The sun therefore “travels” 47⁰ North to South between 23.5⁰ N and 23.5⁰ S during a complete year.- Important Latitude- North Pole = 90⁰ N- Arctic Circle = 66 1/2⁰ N- Trophic of Cancer = 23 1/2⁰ N- Equator = 0⁰- Trophic of Capricorn = 23 1/2⁰ S- Antarctic Circle = 66 1/2⁰ S- South Pole = 90⁰ S- Heterosphere – outer atmosphere- Homosphere – inner atmosphere- Gases evenly blendedEnergy Essentials- Transmission- passage of shortwave and longwave energy through the atmosphere or water- Isolation- all incoming solar radiation- Isolation input- all radiation received at earth’s surface – direct radiation and indirect radiation- Refraction- change in speed and direction of light- Albedo and reflection- Reflective quality or intrinsic brightness of a surface = albedo - Albedo (amount reflection/ total incoming) x 100, nothing more than a percentage- Absorption- Assimilation of energy into objects; molecules and conversion from one form to another- If energy is not reflected, then it must be absorbed - Insolation that is not part of the 31% reflected from earth’s surface and atmosphere is absorbed- Sensible Heat- Heat that can be sensed and measured with a thermometer- Latent Heat- when energy is absorbed, held in storage, and later released- Conduction- molecule to molecule transfer of energy - Convention- energy transferred primarily by vertical movement - Advection- energy transferred primarily by horizontal movement - Radiation- energy traveling through air or


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