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A-State PSY 2013 - Behavioral Genetics

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PSY 2013 1st Edition Lecture 4 Outline of Last Lecture I. Correlation v. CausationII. Statistical ReasoningIII. Research EthicsOutline of Current Lecture (Chapter 2 – Biological Basis of Psychology) I. Behavioral GeneticsII. Evolutionary PsychologyIII. Neuroscience A. Study of NeuronsCurrent LectureI. Behavioral Genetics (the hereditary part of behavior) <Refer to Lecture 2 – “The Big Debate”>- Twin Adoption studieso Without the adoption aspect, it is difficult to determine what is “nature” and what is “nurture.”o People are approximately 60% formed by nature (genetics).o Nurture (environment) works on what nature endows.Example: A study was done on a set of identical twins that were separated at birth. One was from New York, and one was from Germany. Upon being told they were a twin, of course they wanted to meet. The similarities were numerous; they both made (and even stirred) their coffee the same, their occupations were similar (one was a police officer, one was a fireman), and their spouses even looked and acted similarly. However, both of them showed differences rooted in their families and areas of origin. Cases like these are how researchers determined the “60%” statistic.II. Evolutionary Psychology- Natural SelectionExample 1: Caveman Bob and Tom episode 1 – berries. CM Bob and CM Tom are walking around looking for food, berries to be specific. They come across a new berry they have never seen before. It is black, has 8 strings coming out of it, and has two red triangles pointing at each other on one side (we would call this an “hourglass” today). CM Bob decided to taste it. CM Bob seizes and dies. CM Tom decides not to eat this berry. This is repeated a few more generations until all new generations of CM Bobs and Toms have a fear of the “berry” and learn to avoid it.These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Example 2: Caveman Bob and Tom episode 2 – fight or flight. CM Bob and CM Tom are walking along when they see a large creature that is orange with black stripes and has large white pointy things protruding from its mouth. CM Tom starts yelling at it, but CM Bob turns and runs. CM Tom is eaten by it, but CM Bob gets away safely. Neither of these behaviors were learned, but obviously one option was smarter than the other and this is the one that will be predominantly passed on to future generations. Today, we callthis the “Fight or Flight” reflex. - Gender Roleso Social learning – “monkey see, monkey do”o Gender schema theories – culture teaches male/femaleIII. Neuroscience- Descartes – philosopher who revealed the “Mind-Body” problemo In short, the problem is we cannot know for sure that anything is real, or even that we are human. All we know is that we are “thinkingthings.”- Franz Josef Gall – founder of phrenology, or the idea ofdifferent parts of the brain being responsible fordifferent mental characteristicso Brain mapping (see photo)o He created the idea that bumps and unevennesson the skull represent larger (and thereforestronger) parts of the brain.  He and one of his students, JohannSpurzheim, conducted experiments where theyfelt people’s heads for bulges. A. Study of Neurons - Neuroanatomy (shape and form of nerves)o Dendriteo Axono Cell bodyo Terminal arborizationo Myelin sheatho Glial cellso Synapse (gap between neurons)- Neurophysiology (function of nerves; why they are shaped the way they are)o Action potential: preparation to activateo Concentration gradiento Electrical gradient Negative ions inside, positive ions outside Creates tension “gates” open and close when a signal comes through, passing it along to the next


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