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UM PSYX 230 - Developmental Psychology 01.29.2015 Lecture Notes

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Developmental PsychologyDr. Erin YosaiJanuary 29, 2015Chapter One Development – The way we grow and change over time Psychology – Study that change systematically, objectively, comprehensively  Findings result in developmental theories  Freud’s Erickson’s Developmental theories set the grounds for social policy Change laws/programs/etc. Resources produce the best outcomesThemes Nature vs. Nurture  Genetics vs. Environment Both influence development Sociocultural context Cultural influence on development Continuous vs. Discontinuous Continuous – small qualitative change Discontinuous – Set stages of development Interaction Psychosexual Cognitive Learning Psychodynamic  Risk/Resilience Factors that impact successful development Drug use S.E.S. Education Nuelear Family Environment Parenting History Historically, children were treated as adults 1500’s enlightenment  Religious focus on child treatment Printing Press Published information on child treatment could be accessed John Locke Tabula Rasa – Blank slate Not too strict in child management Empiricism - Theory that environmental experiences shape the individual; all knowledge is derived from sensory experiencesOrigin of Developmental Psychology Charles Darwin studied his kid for the first 3 years of his life Applied knowledge of development of other species William Preyer did the same thing Systematic observation 1888 – The Mind of the ChildObservations of children must be conducted systematically, immediately, unobtrusively and often G. Stanley Hall – the 1st person in America to get a psychology doctorate Launched child study in the U.S.  Father of developmental (child) psychology Questionnaire Method First child data collection – compared across sociocultural context Alfred Binet – Studied individual differences First IQ Test Four domains of development Comprehension Inventiveness Direction Criticism James Mark Baldwin Early developmental theorist Recognized for unique perspective on social development and the formation of personality  Social experiences contribute to developmental outcomes Sigmund Freud Psychosexual theory of development  Five Stages Oral Anal Phallic Latency Genital Phallic – Boys and girls are different  “I wanna be like mommy/daddy!” Genital – Settle down, find a mate Fixation: stages are not fulfilled “Being anal” – How you’re potty-trained affects your personalityTheories of Development Learning – Relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of such experiences as exploration, observation and practice. Learning Theory Approaches Behaviorism Social Learning Theory Learning is closely tied with developmentMajor Types of Learning Classical conditioning - A neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes a reflexive response and eventually elicits that response by itself Ivan Pavlov Bell – Food Presentation – Drool “Psychic secretions” Associations Youtube video – Classical Conditioning “Attack of the Quack” Nerf gun (Unconditioned stimulus) – flinch/duck (Unconditioned response) Quack (Neutral Stimulus) + Nerf gun – flinch/duck Quack (Conditioned Stimulus) – Flinch/duck (Conditioned Response) Operant conditioning - Organism produces a response which is rewarded or not; the consequence influences the likelihood of future responding  A – B (Behavior) – C (Consequences) Reinforcement or punishment Potty-Training Behavior – Poop in the potty Reinforcement – Reward Behavior – Poop in the kitchen Punishment – Take away iPad for 1 hour Big Bang Theory – Positive vs. Negative Reinforcement Chocolate Rewards: Food (primary), money (secondary), sex, shelter Punishers: Aversive – Water bottle, electric shock, removal of attention Social Learning Theory: Theoretical approach emphasizing the importance of learning through observation and imitation of behaviors modeled by others Learning from others “The easy way” Observational Learning: Imitation of others’ behaviors Bobo doll example (1960’s) Kids who see violence are more likely to behave violently Children are always watching Information Processing Approaches Theoretical approach that views humans as having a limited ability to process information, muchlike computers Short term (Active) memory holds 7 +/- 2 pieces of information at a time This approach can be extended to account for development in many other domains, including language acquisition, peer relationships, and even social and personality development  Cognitive


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