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CORNELL HD 3700 - Approaching Freud

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HD 3700 1st Edition Lecture 2 Outline of Last Lecture I. The strange case of Dr. ZII. Considering Dr. Z most broadlyIII. Who are we?Outline of Current Lecture I. Freud’s Time and Place: Fin de Siecle ViennaII. Freud’s Intellectual Contexta. The rise of the scientific methodb. Marx, Darwin, Helmholtz and FreudIII. Freud’s Story: treating the “untreatable” patientsIV. “Parapraxes” – slips of the tongue and why they were so important to Freud’s researchCurrent LectureI. Freud’s Time and Place: Fin de Siecle Vienna- A time of great intellectual and scientific discovery, a challenge to class structure, established religion, & culture norms … o Radical innovations in politics, philosophy, the arts, and scienceso Cultural ferment, ethnic tensions, and class conflicts- …but also a time of intense sexual and aggressive repressionII. Freud’s Intellectual Context- At this time, the establishment of the scientific method was beginning to increase the rigor of the scienceso Human behavior / experience studied scientifically These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Marx, Darwin, Helmholtz and Freud: All looked at contemporary reality and gave it a backstory, challenging the current dominant ideaso Marx  Marx challenged the notion that social reality is fixed Marx examined the economic systems throughout history, and claimed that because you can see how they have changed, economic systems are not fixed  Argued for economic revolution, in his opinion people could change their social standing, (e.g. a maid could become a lady) Key idea: Social Reality is seen as governed by economic, political, and cultural forces which have evolved uniquely for each society.o Darwin Darwin presented the idea that evolution is the backstory to the natural world Thus, the natural world is not a given, but is constantly changing and is a result of years of evolution  Key idea: Plant and animal species have evolved over time through mutations rewarded by competition and advantage in ecological niches.o Helmholtz Helmholtz argued that like matter, energy cannot be created or destroyed Key idea: Forces within nature – magnetism, gravity, heat, electricity, are all expression of energy, a measurable force which, like matter, can neither be created nor destroyedo Freud Freud argued that we have an unconscious Key idea: Individual moments of consciousness are not random, nor are they under our control. They are an expression of the preceding momentsof consciousness, and they contribute to the following moments of consciousness.III. Freud’s Story: treating the “untreatable” patients- The “untreatable” patients were suffering from hysteriao They had real physical symptoms without a physical causeo These symptoms could be created or removed in a hypnotic trance…but they soon returned- Psychotherapy started with the bedside mannero The bedside manner led Freud to ask his patients to reflect on their illness, leading them first to the onset of the symptoms, then to a traumatic event symbolized by the illness Asked patients to tell him when their symptoms occurred, then had them free associate to the symptoms, and found that when they free associated, they often began talking about traumas in childhood He found that when they started talking about their traumas, their symptoms went away He concluded that the traumas were being expressed through the symptoms rather than being expressed through consciousness As they expressed the traumas through consciousness (talking about them), their symptoms ceased- This led to the psychoanalytic method – lying on a couch, associating freely during the hour, resolving symptoms, discovering underlying thoughts and feelings … which led to…- Psychoanalytic theories to explain the phenomena Freud, and later his colleagues, observed during their psychoanalytic sessions.IV. “Parapraxes” – slips of the tongue and why they were so important to Freud’s research- Slips of the tongue are common experiences- We tend to dismiss them as “mental errors”- But if we look closely at them, almost none of them are “random” or incomprehensible—they make “sense” and convey an idea somehow relevant to the sentence…- Thus Freud makes this claim: He is the first psychologist to take the slip “seriously,” that is, to look at the content of the “mistake.”- Degrees of awareness (on the part of the person who “slips”)o The speaker slips but is not surprised by the slip – he is conscious of what he wanted to say (even though he didn’t mean to say it).o The speaker slips, it surprises him, but he knows immediately why he slipped.  Example: man calls his present wife by his ex wife’s name while they are quarrelling, immediately knows it is because his ex wife was argumentativeo The speaker slips but doesn’t know afterward why.- The main point of parapraxeso The slip is always the result of a conflict between competing ideas … in which the intended sentence (the ‘disturbed’ content) is replaced at the last second by the slip (the ‘disturbing’ content). Usually, the first is reversed by the second. But in any case, they are connected by the “train of thought” underlying the speaker’s ideas.- Tip of the Icebergo Slips of the tongue are but one instance of an intrusion of unconscious wishes, fears, thoughts or feelings.o Forgetting a name, a memory, an appointment … these are intrusions, too.o Writing the wrong thing down, sending an email to the wrong person, hitting “reply all” by mistake … also intrusions.o Most important – Freud insists that we have a built-in resistance to considering these errors as having any meaning.  We are unconsciously motivated to dismiss them as “random


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