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UW-Milwaukee NURS 101 - Diversity

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NURS 101 1st Edition Lecture 1What is cultural diversity in health care?- to increase sensitivity to and knowledge about culturally diverse populations in America- explore histories, basic values, beliefs and health practices of different ethnic groups and ways of promoting culturally relevant health care across the life spanCourse Objectives:- Recognize own culturally derived values and beliefs.- Explain perceptions of health and health behavior within a cultural context.- Define and explain the relationships among the concepts of culture, ethnicity, and ethnic groups as they operate within American society.- Identify the health-promoting functions of ethnic groups in America.- Compare and contrast health statistics across ethnic groups in the United States and in Wisconsin.- Specify the contrasts and commonalities between traditional (indigenous) health culture and professional health systems.- Begin to identify issues relevant to the provision of health care to ethnically diversegroups.Clicker Question #1 (clicker questions are most likely going to ALWAYS appear on tests)Q: Every person has a culture…A: TrueCulture Defined- A world-view, life-style or learned belief and value system that guides behavior andcreates shared meanings within a group of people.-An integrated pattern linking together aspects of life and social structure within a group or society-Refers to the relationship between what people know and believe and what they doCulture (continued)- Culture is acquired- You are not born with it- You learn it during the course of life in society- Culture is shared among members of a group or society- Culture is transmitted to members of a group or society over time- Communication is the way by which culture is transmitted and preservedClicker Question #2Q: Culture is staticA: FalseEvolution of Culture Culture is not fixed or static- People from one society or group come into contact with another- Changes over time- As a way of copingCultures change- Impact of electronic media – internet, mobile technologies, television, film- Symbols, stories, beliefs and practices of a culture may be influenced by others- A key source of motivation for health-related behaviorConnected to- The way human beings interpret and make sense of life- The way we are socially organized- How we carry out our daily tasksAffects- The health risks we take- The way we respond to illnessHealth Defined“A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of infirmity”A persons definition of illness is most influenced by: race, ritual, enculturation, age group and socioeconomic classCaution in speaking of culture- Patient’s cultural practices cannot be standardized- Any given individual exhibits a variety of cultural behaviors simultaneously- A complex and fluid sociopolitical construct that is best understood in relational terms through:HistoryExperienceGenderSocial positionWhy learn about cultural diversity?- American Nurses Association (ANA) Position Statement- Health care that is not sensitive to differences in race, specific health practices and needs of different groups is not quality care and can even be harmfulExamples:- Failure to screen for lead in inner city children living in poverty- Failure to screen for sickle cell disease in African American children- Health disparities exist locally and globally- Changing demographics in the US- The total minority population of the US is 100. 7 million- One in three US residents is a member of a minority group- Nurses are at the center of either exacerbating disparities or taking leadership in eradicating disparities- Social justice and equalityClicker Question #3Q: African American men in Harlem have a shorter life expectancy from age five thanwhich of the following groups?A: All of the above (Japanese, Bangladeshis, Cubans, Algerians living in Paris)Clicker Question #4Q: How does US life expectancy compare to other countries?A: 29th placeClicker Question #5Q: On average, how many supermarkets are there in predominantly White neighborhoods compared to predominantly Black and Latino neighborhoods?A: 4 times as manyValuing Difference- Increased creativity- Increased productivity- Increased profitability- Enhanced public relations- Improved product and service quality- Greater job satisfactionModels of Cultural Competence- Campinha-Bacote’s model of cultural competence- Transcultural theory- Theory of intersectionality- Post-colonial feminist theory- Cultural safetyClicker Question #6Q: Being sensitive to cultural differences that may exist between you and the patient is most useful in the avoidance of?A: MiscommunicationCultural Safety- The practice of actively examining social, economic, and political positions and power differences between patient and nurse- Created by the Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand in the 1980s- Expresses need for nursing care that acknowledges and responds to health needs and injustices (Ramden, 1993)- Takes into account socio-cultural, sociopolitical and historical contexts in which health and health care occurs- Health care is situated in sociopolitical dynamics- Addresses power imbalances between health care providers and health care recipients- Many nursing scholars have found principles of cultural safety more helpful than cultural sensitivity or cultural competence in understanding how to engage with indigenous, colonized or oppressed persons (Smye& Browne, 2002)Cultural Safety (Part 2)Acknowledges that culturally unsafe nursing practice can:- Perpetuate health disparities- Reify institutional racism- De-humanize- Re-create trauma in indigenous peoples(Ramden, 1993; Sherwood & Edwards, 2006; Smye& Browne, 2002)- Recognizes that colonialism led to disruption of traditional organizing featuresOur ultimate goal in providing health care to marginalized populations* To end class we watched a 20-minute TED talks video race and how there is alwaysanother side of the story. The main point to be taken from this film was that no matter what you hear about a certain culture or race; you cannot make any generalizations. Media and other people can paint a very wrong picture of others and their


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