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ISU BIOL 100 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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BIOL 100 1st Edition Exam # 1 Study GuideKnow the following terms:Scientific method-observations,proposing ideas,testing ideas,modifying ideas based on results.Hypothesis-proposed explanation for a set of ideas. Needs to be testable, falsifiable.Scientific theory-Broad explanation of a large set of observations.Know the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning.Controlled experiment-Test effect on 1 single variable. Subject is not exposed to the treatment but has all Other variables.Experimental Group-The group that gets the actual experiment. Does not receive placebo. Blind experiment-Subjects don’t know what treatment they have received.Double blind experiment-person doesn’t know who they are giving treatment to until the end results are done.Ecology-Study of the interaction among organisms and between organisms and their environment.Mark-recapture method-Some individuals trapped, marked, released, note number of marked individuals in later captures.Demographic momentum-time lag between when humans reduce birth rates and when population growth begins to slow.Biodiversity-the variety within and among living species. Habitat-place where a certain lives and obtains resources to live.Introduced species-non-native species introduced to a new area either on purpose or on accident by humans.Mutalism-relationship in which both species benefit from their interactions.Ecosystem-all of the organisms in a given area, along with their non-biological environment.Heterozygotic-greater fitnessConcepts to understand:-The lower the confidence interval, the higher your data.-Influence of statistical significance: sample size, difference between population, high variability,bigger is better.-Three different groups of species: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya-Bacteria and Archaea are Prokaryotes, Eukarya has 4 kingdoms: Plantae, Animillia, Fungi, and Protista.-Prokaryotes don’t have a nucleus, mostly unicellular. -Eukaryotes are single celled-Plantae are multicellular-Closer to the equator, more tropical, less diverseGenetic variability-if you lose variability, more likely to have mutant alleles. Can cause extinction due to low fitness.Below is a practice quiz posted by the instructor. I encourage you to take this practice to see what you need tostudy the most.MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.1) The scientific method is used to A) distinguish good from evil. B) determine absolute truth. C) answer specific questions about the natural world. D) establish moral codes. 2) Consider an experiment in which subjects are given a pill to test its effectiveness on reducing the duration of a cold. Which of the following is the best way to treat the control group? A) Give the control group two pills instead of one. B) Do nothing with the control group. C) Let the control group choose whether or not to take any pills. D) Give the control group a pill that does not affect the duration of colds. 3) The purpose of double-blind experiments is to A) minimize the effects of human bias on the results. B) help the subjects in an experiment understand the treatment they are receiving. C) ensure that the hypothesis is scientifically testable. D) see if the experimental group will respond differently than the control group. 4) Bias in an experiment can occur when A) a technician knows which samples are from the control group. B) a researcher randomly assigns subjects to the control or experimental group. C) a subject does not know who is in the control or experimental groups. D) a subject finds out the results of the experiment after it is finished. 5) A scientific hypothesis has which of the following features? A) It is not based on observations. B) It is a theory about something. C) It is falsifiable. D) It is able to be proven true. 6) A scientific theory is A) an explanation that cannot be modified in light of new experimental evidence. B) an explanation supported by a very large amount of experimental evidence. C) little more than an educated guess. D) any testable explanation for a question or problem. 7) The specialized branch of mathematics that is used to compare data is called A) epidemiology. B) cross-sectional mathematics. C) computational mathematics. D) statistics. 8) In an ideal experiment, there is aA) large confidence interval. B) small treatment effect. C) high sampling error. D) low standard error. 9) The most trustworthy source of scientific information is A) paid advertisements. B) science reports in newspapers and on TV. C) peer-reviewed research publications. D) anecdotal evidence. 10) A news report is an example of a(n) ________ source of scientific information. A) primary B) anecdotal C) tertiary D) secondary 11) On August 8, 2005, the temperature in New Haven, Connecticut, was 82° F with partly cloudy skies. This is a description of New Haven's A) ecosystem. B) climate. C) weather. D) biome. 12) Los Angeles, California, has an average daily temperature between 70° F and 80° F throughout most of the year. There's very little rainfall except for during a rainy season beginning in the fall. This describes the city's A) climate. B) ecosystem. C) weather. D) biome. 13) Earth's axis is tilted away from the sun during ________ and toward the sun during ________ in the Northern Hemisphere. A) spring; fall B) fall; spring C) summer; winter D) winter; summer 14) Why does Dallas, Texas, have a higher yearly average temperature than Chicago, Illinois? A) Dallas is closer to a large body of water, than is Chicago. B) Dallas is at a higher latitude than Chicago. C) Dallas receives more solar irradiance than Chicago. D) Chicago experiences more prevailing westerly winds than Dallas. 15) Temperature variation among geographic locations is NOT affected byA) latitude. B) elevation. C) proximity to water. D) longitude. 16) The major deserts of the world are located at A) 23.5° north and south of the equator. B) the equator. C) 45° north and south of the equator. D) 30° north and south of the equator. 17) Which major biome type contains most of Earth's biodiversity? A) grasslands B) forests C) desert D) tundra 18) Which of the following has the most biomass per unit area? A) tundra B) boreal forest C) tropical forest D) temperate forest 19) The gradual replacement of plant species in a rainforest over time (for example, as it progresses from anold agricultural field back to a forest) is calledA)


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