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UW-Milwaukee PSYCH 205 - Personality Research Methods

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Psych 205 1st Edition Lecture 4 Outline of Last Lecture I. Looking into Unconscious MaterialOutline of Current Lecture II. Personality Research MethodsA. Scientific MethodIII. Theories and Hypothesis testingIV. ExperimentationV. Data AnalysisCurrent LectureIn today’s class, we had a guest speaker named Taylor Davine, who talked about the different Research Methods of Personality. Taylor taught us about the Scientific Method and the six steps that make it up, the different tests of theories and hypothesis, Experimentation and also Data Analysis.The Scientific Method-Ask a question, do background research, construct a hypothesis, test your hypothesis bydoing an experiment, analyze your data and come to a conclusion, report your results (was the hypothesis correct)Theories and Hypotheses-Theory-A general statement about the relationship between constructs and events-Construct: an unobservable explanatory variable that is not directly measurable (depression and extraversion)-Hypothesis-A prediction about the relationship between two or more variables that comes from the theory you are working withThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.-An example: the video with the baby goat going down the slide and him thinking he will not fall.-Good characteristics of hypotheses and theories-Testable-can it be tested?-Falsifiable- an alternate explanation-Parsimonious- a short explanation-Fruitful- comes out to a solutionHow are Theories and Hypotheses developed?-Prior research findings from peer reviewed journals-Institution: gut instinct, what you think, your first thoughts-Serendipity-finding something that you were not looking for-Pavlov’s classical conditioning with the digestive system and showing the dog salivating-Viagra was really made to treat heart condition but used to help men sexually-Ritalin was made to help treat depression but it is used to treat ADHDExperimental Variables: the IV (Independent Variable)-Independent Variable: the variable that the experimenter manipulates (changes)-Example: The experiment when set your hand in ice water, the amount of time your hand is in the ice water.Experimental Variables: the DV (Dependent Variable)-Dependent variable: the specific behavior that a researcher tries to explain in an experiment (the variable that Is being measured)-Example: Narcissism- different people with anxiety are put into different therapygroups and see which therapy works the bestMore than one IV: Interactions-Interaction: the effect of one independent variable changes across the levels of another independent variable-Sampling: researchers select a subset of population-Convenience sample-university students-Random selection: example: while going to a football game, choosing random fans out of the crowd-Selection bias: certain selection- all sports fansManipulated VS. Nonmanipulated IV-Manipulated: begins with a large number of participants-Randomly assigned to an experimental group-Groups have similar characteristics too intro of IV-Nonmanipulated: exists without the researchers intervention-Investigator does not randomly assign participants to a condition thus homogeneity is not assumed-Difficult to find cause and affect relationshipsPrediction Vs. Hindsight-Accurate predictions can be made if a scientist has a legitimate theory-Predictions are always made by a priority before conducting an experiment-The purpose of research is to provide support for a hypothesis-Post HOC interpretations and unpredicted findings are still useful because they provide the framework for future researchReplication-Replication-science is self-correcting throughout the process of replication-Research that is supported is considered progessed and will continue-Research that is not supported is degenerative and will slow a death-Replicating a study with another population helps to find it is relevant for larger numbers of people (generalizable)-Example: the file drawer problem: null findings and results are inflatedStatistical Analysis of Data-Significance vs. meaningful-The magic p<. 05-Sample size-east to find significance with large sample sizes-Effect size-an index of the magnitude of an effect-Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests if there are differences between groups-Chi square test-if values are different than predicted values-Correlation coefficient-an index of the relationship between two variables (-1.00-1.00)Reliablity: consistency of a measure -Test re test-reliability coefficient -Internal consistency coefficient-create a measure for questions of depression then throw in a random questionsInter-rater coefficient-observing someone and rate interactions of students-ratings will be the same of people who are


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