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U of U PSY 3711 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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Psy 3711 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures 1-4Lecture 1 (January 12 & 15)Perspectives on the relation between brain and behaviorBe able to define mentalism, dualism, and materialism.Which historical philosophers and scientists are associated with each of the above views? Explain the roles of the ventricles and pineal gland in Descartes’ theory of mind, brain, and behavior.Brain EvolutionExplain the difference between innate and learned behaviorWhat is the typical relationship between the complexity of an organism’s nervous systemand its behavioral repertoire?Explain the rationale underlying the Encephalization QuotientNeoteny – what is it and what does it allow for?Be able to list and give examples of the factors thought to be responsible for the evolution of a large brain in humans.Chapter 2 (January 19 & 21)Terminology: Anatomical Location Be able to label views of the head or brain (i.e., dorsal, ventral, lateral, medial, etc.)Know the difference between afferent and efferentGross Neuroanatomy (be able to name the structures if given a picture and recall their primary functions)Surface Features of the BrainFissures/Sulci/GyriLobesArteriesMeninges and Cerebrospinal fluidInternal Features of the BrainVentricles and Cerebrospinal fluidCorpus CallosumGross organization of the nervous system Central Nervous System Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Know the major divisions of the brain and their components (midbrain, hindbrain, forebrain and their major components). What are the basic functions of the components? (e.g., the colluculi and visual/auditory orienting, the reticular system and arousal).What is the basal ganglia? What structures comprise it? What behavioral functions are most associated with the basal ganglia?What are the primary structures that comprise the limbic system?What functions are most associated with the hippocampus and the amygdala? What is the neocortex? What does the term subcortical mean?Principles of nervous system organization and function10 principles of brain function according to Kolb and WhishawExplain what is meant by the statement that “the nervous system produces movement within a perceptual world the brain creates.”How is the brain both symmetrical and asymmetrical?Chapter 3 (January 2 & 4)HistoryWho were Santiago Ramon y Cajal and Camillo Golgi?What it the neuron hypothesis? (a.k.a. the neuron doctrine)Neurons and GliaHow does information flow through a neuron?Know (be able to label) the major external features of a neuronKnow the difference between glial cells and neuronsKnow the 3 types of neuronsKnow the 5 types of glial cells and their functions (be able to recognize them visually)List two disorders associated with the function/dysfunction of glial cellsParts of the cell and their role in protein synthesisWhat are the essential cellular structures involved in protein synthesis and transport?How are amino acids and proteins important for the functioning of nerve cells?Genes, brains, and behaviorKnow what the terms Dominant, Recessive, and Homozygous and Heterozygous meanName the three genetic disorders discussed in the text and describe their genetic basisChapter 4 (February 2 & 4)Electricity and neuronsWhat is the early evidence that neurons communicate using electrical signals?e.g., Galvani, Caton, etc.What is an electrical current? What is a potential?What is an electroencephalogram?Why were Hermann von Helmholtz’ studies important to our understanding of neural information transmission?What are ions (cations and anions), and how do they relate to neural information transmission?What is Diffusion? What are concentration and voltage gradients?The Resting PotentialKnow the roles of sodium, potassium, chloride, and large protein anions in determining the resting potential.What is a Sodium/Potassium pump? What is the resting potential voltage in human neural cell membranes? What is its relevance to information processing in the nervous system?What was the significance of Hodgkin and Huxley’s work? What did they do?What is the threshold potential?Graded PotentialsWhat are depolarization and hyperpolarization generally, and how do they relate to EPSPs and IPSPs specifically?Know which ion influxes/effluxes cause depolarization/hyperpolarizationWhat are Spatial and Temporal Summation?Action Potentials Be able to list the four phases of the action potential and describe what happens during each phase?What are Voltage-gated ion channels? What role do they play in action potentials?What is the effect of tetrodotoxin and TEA on action potentials?Be able to define absolute and relative refractory periodsWhy do action potentials only move in one direction?What is the axon hillock and what role does it play in the action potential?Myelin sheath and action potentialsWhat is the function of myelin?What cells produce the myelin sheath in the CNS and PNS?How does saltatory conduction work and what is a node of


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