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U of U PSY 3410 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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Exam # 1 Study Guide Lectures 1-9Lecture 1 (January 13)DEFINITIONS & METHODOLOGY1. Define social psychology. How does social psychology differ from personality psychology and sociology?2. What is the advantage of experimental research (Text 24-25)? What is random assignment and why is it the “great equalizer”? What are demand characteristics (Text 28)? What steps are taken to minimize the likelihood of demand effects?3. What safeguards have been established to protect the rights and well-being of subjects in social psychological research (Text 27)?Lecture 2 (January 20)SOCIAL JUDGMENT1. Why is it important to understand how people perceive, judge, and explain behavior? Along the same lines, why are social psychologists so concerned with people’s perceptions and judgments?2. What are the two basic steps characterize social judgment? Are the information gathering and the inference processes conscious or unconscious? How many cues typically serve as the basis for a judgmental inference?3. What evidence serves as the basis for our impressions of others? What is the person positivity bias? Generally, do our impressions of people become more positive or more negative over time? How does information about the political, religious, and social attitudes of people generally affect our impressions of them? What is the implication of this finding for how celebrities (and other persons trying to make a good impression) should present themselves to others?4. How do desires or preferences affect the gathering and interpretation of evidence? Why do people engage in wishful thinking?5. What is a heuristic? What is the availability heuristic? 6. What is belief perseverance (Text 82-83)? According to the research by Lord, Ross, and Lepper, how do preexisting attitudes and beliefs affect our assessment of new information and evidence?7. What is judgmental overconfidence? Explain how incompetence feeds overconfidence (Text 89). What are two remedies for overconfidence?8. How do our current attitudes affect our recollections of our previous attitudes and behavior (Text 84-85)?Lecture 3 (January 22)ATTRIBUTION1. How do internal attributions of behavior differ from external attributions of behavior? Explain the discounting and augmentation principles. When are people most likely to draw dispositional inferencesabout others? Why does socially undesirable behavior lead to internal attributions and impact impressions more than social desirable behavior?2. When are people most likely to engage in attributional thinking? That is, when do they try to explainbehavior or events?3. What is the fundamental attribution error? Is the fundamental attribution error a universal phenomenon (Text 107-108)?4. What is the belief in a just world? How does this belief affect attributions? Why do people want to believe in a just world? What are defensive attributions?Lecture 4 (January 27)NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR & COMMUNICATION1Psy 3410 1st Edition1. What evidence indicates that there is a small set of biologically determined universal emotional expressions?2. What were the three body types delineated by Sheldon? According to Sheldon, what personality characteristics are associated with these body types? What does the empirical evidence suggest aboutbody type and personality?3. What are three important functions of nonverbal expressions?4. Identify two important gender differences in non-verbal communication and perception. What is therelation between social status and the sorts of nonverbal behaviors that are typically performed by women?5. What is personal space? What are some important factors affecting personal space preference?6. Basic processes that operate during deception: attempted control, high arousal and emotionality, complex cognitive processing. What are some of the behaviors that are associated with each of these processes that may indicate deception?7. What nonverbal channels are the "leakiest"? That is, what nonverbal channels tend to be the least controllable and the most revealing of deception? What channel do people typically focus upon in attempting to detect deception?8. How does polygraph testing work? That is, what are the different types of questions that are asked, what is measured, and what patterns of responding are expected? What are some of the problems associated with polygraph testing? How can a polygraph test be “beaten”?Lecture 5 (January 27)PERCEIVING GROUPS1. How do ingroup perceptions differ from outgroup perceptions?2. Stereotypes are a particular type of expectancy or belief. Is the content of stereotypes always negative? Are stereotypes always inaccurate? What is a confirmation bias? What are some of the mechanisms through which expectancies bias our perceptions and judgments? What is a self-fulfilling prophecy or behavior confirmation?Lecture 6 (January 29) RACIAL PREJUDICE, STEREOTYPING, DISCRIMINATION1. How does modern racism differ from old-fashioned racism? Why do surveys tend to underestimate the racial stereotypes and prejudice that prevail in society?2. Racial prejudice is universal. Why are the racial stereotypes and prejudices held by European Americans more consequential than those held by other groups?3. Identify some important causes of prejudice and stereotypes. According to social identity theory, what is responsible for ingroup favoritism? What is scapegoating or displacement? Who is most likely to be the victim of scapegoating? Note that your textbook often uses different labels than your instructor (e.g., need for status vs. need for a positive social identity). Nevertheless, the processes are the same.4. Describe the vicious circle that exists between the current roles and statuses of many minorities, and prejudice and stereotyping?5. Why are racial stereotypes resistant to change? In what ways do dominant group members benefit from racial stereotypes and prejudice?6. What is stereotype threat (Text 346)? What are two ways in which stereotype threat undermines performance?7. What are some societal costs of racism and other forms of prejudice and discrimination?8. Stereotypes, particularly racial stereotypes, are generalizations that often fail to capture the variability that exists in a group. How can we prevent stereotypes from influencing our impressions of others? What are individuated judgments? 9. In what way is education limited as a means of reducing prejudice and stereotyping? What information can be conveyed through education that may help


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