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UI PSY 2601 - Cognitive Psychology

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PSY 2601 1st Edition Lecture 6Outline of Last Lecture I. Review of Brain Structures and Functions a. Neuronal Information Transmissioni. Parts of a Neuronii. Examples of Neuronsiii. Action Potentialsb. Learning in the Brainc. Facts about the Human BrainOutline of Current Lecture I. The Neocortexa. Cerebral Cortex is divided into 4 lobesi. Parietalii. Occipitaliii. Temporaliv. Frontalb. Each Hemisphere c. Fitting the structures into the BrainLink to a 3-d explanation of the brain—II. Subcortical Structures and Cognitive Processinga. Forebraini. Thalamusii. Basal Gangliaiii. Limbic Systemb. Hindbraini. Cerebellum III. Brain Organization a. Contralaterali. Left Sideii. Right Sideb. Somatosensory and Sensorimotor MapsCurrent LectureI. The NeocortexThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.a. Cerebral Cortex is divided into 4 lobes (see diagram at bottom)i. Parietal1. Sensory information from bodyii. Occipital1. Visual informationiii. Temporal1. Auditory informationiv. Frontal1. Motor Cortexa. Fine motor movements2. Premotor Cortexa. Planning movements3. Prefrontal Cortexa. Executive functionsb. Each Hemisphere i. Has a single, 6-layered sheet of neurons, approximately the size of a large pizzac. Fitting the structures into the Braini. Each sheet is crinkled up (like the typical picture of a brain that we think of) (see diagramat bottom)1. Each visible strip on the surface is called a “gyrus”2. Each visible crease is called a “sulcus” or a “fissure” (fissure’s are used to describethe largest crease’s)**Link to a 3-d explanation of the brain— includes labeling of all lobes, split brain down the middle, view of the brain from the bottom up, top down, and a 360º rotating view• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HVGlfcP3ATIII. Subcortical Structures and Cognitive Processinga. Forebraini. Thalamus1. All information that comes in from sensory receptors comes in/out of here2. Signal gets transmitted to primary sensory cortical areas3. Works with Basal Ganglia with action selectionii. Basal Ganglia1. Previously thought to be mainly concerned with motor sequencinga. Ex: Basal Ganglia impaired Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease2. Now Basal Ganglia is regarded as important for learning even of cognitive skillsa. Habit learning; action selectionb. Prediction tasks (reinforcement learning)c. Learning language patterns (procedural learning)iii. Limbic System1. Many structures within Limbic System2. Many of them play hugely important roles in cognitive processing3. Cingulate Gyrus: attentional monitoring4. Hippocampusa. One of the most important structures in the brain for memory b. Hindbraini. Cerebellum 1. Motor coordination and muscle movements2. More neurons than the rest of the brain3. Very large surface area4. Has expanded greatly in humans with expansion of prefrontal cortexIII. Brain Organization a. Contralaterali. Left Side1. Receives inputs from right side and controls muscles of the right side of the bodyii. Right Side1. Receives inputs from left side and controls muscles of the left side of the bodyiii. This is called “contralateral” organization (contra=opposite, lateral=side)iv. The contralateral side is the opposite side; the “ipsilateral” side is the same side Cerebral CortexGyrui, Sulcui, and Fissure’sSuperior Temporal GyrusSuperior Temporal SulcusLateral


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