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ASU BIO 353 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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BIO 353 1st Edition Exam # 1 Study GuideLectures 1 and 2 – Introduction to Cell Biology and Research Methods1. Define “The Cell” “Small membrane-enclosed units filled with a concentrated aqueous solution of chemicals and endowed with the ability to create copies of themselves by growing and then dividing in two. The lecture slideshow defines it as “The Cell the basic unit of biology, every organismeither consists of cells or is itself a single cell. As we understand more of the structure, organization and function of cells, (not just knowing more but understanding more), the more we appreciate the capabilities and limitations of cellsand life.”2. What are the major organelles/structures of a basic eukaryotic animal cell.- There is no cell wall, extracellular matrix held together by collagen, Nucleus, mitochondria, cytoplasm, peroxisome, microtubule, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, lysosome, and they are membrane enclosed organelles.3. What are the three major disciplines that are involved in studying cell biology?- Bio-imaging: the study of cellular structure and organization.- Biochemistry: the study of chemical reactions of biomolecules.- Molecular Biology: the study of interactions and regulation between cellular systems involving DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. 4. What is light microscopy?- Robert Hooke- Antonie can Leeuwenhoek- Ernst Abbe: defined the limit for optical microscope resolution to roughly half the wavelength of violet light (~0.2 micrometers).-- Carl Zeiss5. Who was one of the scientists credited with helping to develop the light microscope and also coined the word “cell”? - Robert Hooke16. Who improved the light microscope?- Antonie van Leeuwenhoek had improved the compound microscope. Leeuwenhoek was the first to describe single cell organisms (animal cells) and was the first to record/observe muscle fibers, bacteria, spermatozoa, and blood flow in capillaries.7. What is the resolution limit of the light microscope?- Half the wavelength of violet light ~0.2 micrometers.8. Who were the two scientists credited with breaking the resolution limit for light microscopy?- Ernst Abbe and Carl Zeiss9. Define resolution.- Optical microscope is defined as the smallest distance between two points on a specimen that can still be distinguished as two separate entities.10. Define magnification.- The process of enlarging something only in appearance, not in physical size. 11. What is one of the major advantages of the basic light microscope?- Live cell imaging. 12. Describe how amplitude contrast works.- Contrast arises because of the scattering of the incident beam by the specimen.13. Describe the uses of amplitude contrast.- Some parts of the cell are transparent and can be stained to increase the visual production under a microscope. 14. What is required for amplitude contrast to work?- Dead/fixed cells, sections, organic dyes. 15. Can the cells be alive when using amplitude contrast.- No they cannot.16. Describe how phase contrast works.- “Exploits differences in the way light travels through regions of the cell with differing refractive indexes” Phase contrast requires special filters and objective lenses. Phase contrast is based on the refraction of light, which is the change in direction of light determined by the change in the velocity of propagation when passing through optically transparent media of different refractive indices. 17. Describe the uses of phase contrast.- Light refraction to visualize living cells.18. What characteristic/behavior of light is phase contrast based on? (What is required for phase contrast to work?)- Refraction of light, special filters and objective lenses, living cells, not stained19. Who developed phase contrast?- Fritz Zernike20. Describe optical tweezers and how they can be used.- Instrument that uses a focused laser beam to provide an attractive o repulsive force (typically on the order of piconewtons), depending on the refractive index mismatch to physically hold and move microscopic objects.221. Can the cells be alive when using phase contrast?- Yes, but they cannot be fixed.22. Describe the basic idea of epifluorescence microscopy.- The idea is to use fluorescence to produce an image. 23. Explain the steps involved in Indirect Immuno-fluorescence Microscopy.- Fix the cells, the primary antibody attached to itself to an antigen on a protein, and the secondary antibody attached to the primary antibody and will floreces to show the protein. 24. Are the cells alive or dead for Indirect Immuno-fluorescence Microscopy.- They are dead or fixed. 25. What is GFP and how is it coupled to the proteins in different cellular structures (direct method)?- GFP (green fluorescent protein) is usually found in jellyfishes. Direct method is in which binds the fluorescent antibody to the antigen that corresponds to the antibody on the targeted protein.26. Can other colors of fluorescent proteins be created?- Yes, there are other colors that can be created, such as yellow, green, and orange.27. Who are the three scientists that are credited with the discovery and development of GFP?- The three scientist that are credited are Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie, and Roger Y. Tsien. (Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2008)28. Are cells alive or dead when viewing GFP using an epifluorescence microscope?- Cells are alive. 29. What are fluorescent dyes (direct method)?- There are a variety of fluorescent dyes but binds to different proteins. 30. Are cells alive or dead when using fluorescent dyes?- They are either alive or dead. 31. Who are the three scientists who won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for their work in super resolution microscopy (example: STED microscopy)?- Eric Betzig, Stefan Hell, William Moerner32. How much did super resolution microscopy increase the resolution of microscopy? - From 200 nm to ~60 nm33. What is confocal epifluorescence microscopy?34. What are the three major advantages of confocal epifluorescence microscopy? 35. What is Electron Microscopy: 36. Describe TEM.- The type of electron microscope microscope used to look at thin section of tissue is known as Transmission electron microscope. 37. When was TEM developed?- 198638. Who is the scientist that developed TEM?- Ernst Ruska339. What is the difference between light and electron microscopy (i.e. why can electron microscopy produce higher resolution than light microscopy?)- EM uses shorter wavelengths to increase the resolution, but


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