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CU-Boulder EBIO 1220 - Domain Eukarya

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EBIO 1220 1st Edition Lecture 7Outline of Last Lecture I. Reading a PhylogenyII. Constructing PhylogeniesIII. Identifying Groups in Phylogenetic Treesa. Monophyleticb. Non-monophyleticc. Homologyd. Analogye. Derivedi. Homologous Structuresii. Analogous Structuresf. Convergent EvolutionIV. ArchaeaV. BacteriaVI. Prokaryotes vs. EukaryotesOutline of Current Lecture II. EndosymbiosisIII. ProtistsIV. MulticellularityV. AnimalsCurrent LectureII. Endosymbiosisa. One of the most important differences between Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes is the adaption of organellesb. Main theory regarding organelle adaption in Eukaryotes is Endosymbiosisi. Proposed by Dr. Lynn Margulisc. Theory is based on the idea of multiple prokaryotic ancestors uniting into a singleorganismd. Endosymbiont: a cell or organism that has become part of another organism (host)e. Endosymbiosis is responsible for the development of organellesf. Mitochondria and plastids were originally free-living prokaryotesi. They began to live inside of larger cellsii. Mitochondria: produce energy These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.iii. Plastid (cholorplast): photosynthetic organismg. This endosymbiotic relationship is good for both organismi. Energy for the hostii. Protection for the prokaryoteh. Over time this relationship became obligatei. Genetic material of organelles become incorporated into host genomej. Internal symbiont was reduced in size and becomes organelleIII. Protistsa. “Protists” are any organism (eukaryotic) that is not fungi, animal or plantb. Protists have traits of all of the others (fungi, animal, plant)c. Non-monophyletic claved. Don’t fit into other eukaryotic kingdomse. HUGE diversityf. Mostly unicellular (live in colonies) but some multicellular as wellg. Play an important role in our healthi. Malaria (Plasmodium spp.)1. 300 million infected2. 2 million annually affected3. Transmitted by mosquitoes 4. Some species can hide in live for up to 20 years!5. Failed eradication in the 1960sa. Resistant mosquitoesb. Resistant parasite6. Huge resurgence after this failed attempt at eradicationIV. Multicellularitya. Analogous traiti. Evolved independently in different lineages of Eukaryotesb. Arose due to mutationV. Animalsa. Common ancestor approximately 1.2 billion years agob. Sponge-like protest called choanoflagellate was ancestorc. Protists gave rise to plants, animals, and fungid. Traits of animalsi. Eukaryotic (domain Eukarya)ii. Multicellular with multiple cell typesiii. Heterotrophiciv. No cell wallv. Early development characteristics1. Transient stages of maturation2. Larval/metamorphosis stage3. Notochord: a longitudinal, flexible roda. Key innovation!b. Gave rise to 52,000 species4. Legs are a second key


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