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ISU PSY 213 - Prenatal Tests

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PSY 213 1st Edition Lecture 6Outline of Last Lecture I. Gene - Linked Abnormalities II. Behavior GeneticsIII. Prenatal DevelopmentIV. The Course of Prenatal DevelopmentOutline of Current Lecture I. Prenatal TestsII. Infertility and Reproductive TechnologyIII. Hazards to Prenatal DevelopmentIV. Prenatal CareV. Birth and the Postpartum PeriodVI. Methods of ChildbirthVII. The Transition from Fetus to NewbornVIII. Low Birth Weight and Preterm InfantsCurrent LectureI. Prenatal Tests- Ultrasound sonography- Chorionic villus sampling- AmniocentesisThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Maternal blood screening- Fetal MRI- Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD)II. Infertility and Reproductive TechnologyInfertility - Inability to conceive a child after 12 months of regular intercourse without contraceptionIn vitro fertilization (IVF) - Eggs and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish- Fertilized egg or eggs is transferred into the woman’s uterusIII. Hazards to Prenatal DevelopmentGeneral principles- Teratogen – any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive or behavioral development- Prescription and nonprescription drugs Tabaco alcohol Psychoactive drugs- Caffeine higher risk or miscarriage, cardiovascular problems for child. - AlcoholFetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) : A cluster of abnormalities and problems that appear in the offspring of mothers who drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy - Nicotine – low birth weight, childhood death in first year of life- Cocaine- Methamphetamine- Marijuana- HeroinIncompatible blood typesEnvironmental hazardsMaternal diseasesOther parental factors- Maternal diet and nutrition- Maternal age- Emotional states and stress- Paternal factorsIV. Prenatal CareVaries enormously from one woman to anotherUsually involves:Defined schedule of visits for medical care which includes screening for:i. Manageable conditions ii. Treatable diseases that can affect the baby or the motherComprehensive educational, social, and nutritional servicesV. Birth and the Postpartum PeriodThe birth process - Occurs in three processesFirst stage is the longest - contractions 15 -20 minutes apart and can last up to one minute.Second birth stage – baby bornThird stage – AfterbirthChildbirth setting and attendantsWho helps a mother during birth varies across culturesMidwivesDoulas - A caregiver who provides continuous physical, emotional, and educational support for the mother before, during, and after childbirthSocial support during child birth and delivery is very important. It’s proven that women have shorter labor and less pain. VI. Methods of ChildbirthMedication- Analgesia - Used to relieve paini. Include tranquilizers, barbiturates, and narcotics such as Demerol- Anesthesia - Used in late first-stage labor and during delivery to block sensation in an area of the body or to block consciousness- Oxytocin - Synthetic hormone used to stimulate contractionsNatural childbirth: Method in which no drugs are given to relieve pain or assist in the birth process Prepared childbirth: Includes a special breathing technique to control pushing in the final stages of labor- As well as more detailed education about anatomy and physiology- Lamaze methodOther nonmedicated techniques to reduce painCesarean delivery - The baby is removed from the uterus through an incision made in the mother’s abdomenVII. The Transition from Fetus to NewbornBirth involves considerable stress for the babyIf the delivery takes too long, the baby can develop anoxiaApgar scale: Widely used to assess the health of newborns at one and five minutes after birth- Evaluates infants’ heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color, and reflex irritability- Ten point scale. If a baby is ranked at a three of below the baby is not well baby is not breathing slow pulse. Five the baby might need oxygen. 7 to 10 baby is good.VIII. Low Birth Weight and Preterm InfantsConditions that pose threats to many newborns:Low birth weight infantsConsequences of low birth weight - More health and developmental problems than normal birth weight infants Learning disabilityAttention deficit hyperactivity disorderBreathing problems such as asthmaNurturing includes:Kangaroo careMassage


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