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UA ANTH 160A1 - Human Ancestors and Language

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ANTH 160A1 1st Edition Lecture 5Outline of Last Lecture I. Human OriginsII. HomininIII. Unilinear Biological EvolutionIV. Multilinear Biological EvolutionV. Key Developments in Human Evolutiona. Bipedalism (Benefits and Origin)b. Increase in Brain Sizec. Tool-Makingd. Reduction in Sexual Dimorphisme. Development of LanguageVI. Out of Africaa. Homo Ergaster b. Homo Erectusc. Neanderthals d. Archaic (Homo Sapiens) Outline of Current Lecture II. Human Ancestors and Languagea. Beginning with the Homo Ergasterb. Neanderthals (Symbols)c. Early Homo Sapiens (Symbols)d. Upper Paleolithic Art in Europee. Cave PaintingsThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Current LectureBeginning with the Homo Ergaster:- The larynx begins to shift upward (which increases death by choking).- There is a wider range of sounds possible, but speech is NOT the same as language (e.g., American Sign Language)*A symbol is something that represents something else by association, convention, or resemblance. A key element of language is that it is symbolic (e.g., the word dog is not the sameas an actual dog). Neanderthals (Symbols)- Shanidar Cave ◦ Iraq: c. 60-80,000 BP◦ Possible flower burial (meaning a possible belief in an afterlife)- Red Ochre ◦ A family of earth pigments used for coloring/dyeing◦ Found in various burials- Flute?◦ Slovenia: c. 43,000 BP◦ Maybe not a flute, maybe not that oldEarly Homo Sapiens (Symbols)- Marine Shell Beads and Incised Stones◦ South Africa: c. 70,000 BP◦ North Africa: c. 100,000 BP◦ Middle East: c. 100,000 BP2Upper Paleolithic Art in Europe (c. 35,000 BP)- Venus of Willendorf ◦ Southern Austria: 30-27,000 BP◦ Limestone- Anthropomorphic Figurine◦ Stadel Cave, Germany: 32,000 BP◦ Carved mammoth tuskCave Paintings- Key Rock Art Sites in Europe:◦ Altamira, Spain (Discovered in 1868; 16-14,000 BP)◦ Chauvet, France (Discovered in 1995; 32-30,000 BP)◦ Cosquer, France (Discovered in 1994; 27-19,000 BP)◦ Lascaux, France (Discovered in 1940; 15-10,000 BP)◦ Niaux, France (Discovered in 1907; 13-10,000 BP)- Things that are painted in the caves:◦ Animals▪ Common: bison, horses▪ Less Common: (bears, cats) carnivores, goats, mammoths, reindeer◦ Geometric Patterns◦ Hand Impressions◦ Monsters- Explosion of Art Shows◦ People were thinking symbolically (the key element of fully modern language)◦ Language and symbolic thought gave Homo Sapiens the edge over Homo Neanderthals◦ Cognitive fluidity▪ Between 100,000 and 35,000 years ago, a major shift in brain organization allowed fully developed symbolic


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