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SU PSY 205 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSY 205 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 4Lecture 1 (January 13th)What is psychology? What is the purpose of studying psychology? What are some branches of psychology? Who are the people who contributed to different types of psychology and what were their contributions?- Psychology is the scientific study of behaviors of living organisms- Psychology aims to uncover general principles and patterns of human behaviors, with a focus on the individual- There are many types of branches of psychology, such as: social, clinical, developmental, cognitive, school, personality, etc. - Plato believed in idealism, which is that people are born with knowledge and that reality isin the mind- Aristotle believed in empiricism, which is that people need to experience something in order to know it- Wilhelm Wundt is known as the father of experimental psychology, psychophysics, because he founded the first formal laboratory for psychological research in Leipzig Germany in 1879- Edward B. Titchener was the founder of structuralism because he analyzed adult minds in terms of the simplest definable components and see how they come together to form more complex experiences (point was to see how the mind works and its structure)- William James founded functionalism because he wanted to find out how the mind functions and he did so by running many experiments that included hypnotisms and other methods- Edward L. Thorndike and Ivan P. Pavlov were associationists because they studied cause and affects and how certain things and conditions relate to types of reactions- John B. Watson studied behaviorism, which is how people act and what they do (such as reflexes, how people learn, sexual behavior, etc.)- Max Wertheimer was one of the founders of gestalt psychology which is the study of perception - Sigmund Freud founded psychoanalysis, which is the study of therapeutic techniques and how they help peopleLecture 2 (January 20th) What is biopsychology? What role does electricity play in psychology? What are the building blocks of the nervous system? What types of neurons are there? What is the synapse? What aresome neurotransmitter substances? Explain the central nervous system and the different parts to it.- Biopsychology is the mechanism of behavior (neuroscience) and it analyzes how the brain and neurotransmitters influence our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors- Rene Descartes believed the mind interacts with the body at the pineal gland (connection between the soul and body)- Julien Offray de la Mettrie believed that in order to understand the mind, you must study the brain- Luigi Galvani used electricity to discover that dead frogs leg muscles moved when struckby electricity which led to the study of bioelectricity, which studies electrical patterns and signals on the nervous system- The Nervous System consists of individual cells- Neurons are the building blocks of the nervous system and there are three types of neurons:o Sensoryo Motoro Inner (connects neurons)- Synapse is the electrochemical nature of neutral communication. It is a structure that allows neurons to pass chemical of electrical signals to cells.- Some neurotransmitter substances include:o Acetylcholine (Ach) cholinergic transmission at the hearto Noradrenaline (NA) adrenergic transmission at the livero Dopamine (DA) what gives you pleasureo Serotonin (SE) makes you happyo GABA- helps you pay attentiono Endorphins (act like morphine), peptides, amino acids, endocannabinoids (related to marijuana)- The Central Nervous System includes the spinal cord and the brain. The spinal cord is related to reflexes and A and D fibers. The brain has many parts to it, including the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain. The hindbrain has the medulla, which is related to biological reflexes such as puking, blood pressure, and others. It also contains the cerebellum, which has to do with balance and modulatory function. The midbrain has the tectum, for vision and heading, it also has the tagmentum for reticular formation, substantia nigra (controls muscle movement) and ventral tegmental area. The forebrain contains the hypothalamus, thalamus, basal ganglia, limbic system, medial forebrain bundle, and nucleus acumbens. The hypothalamus controls biological drives such as hunger, thirst, sex, etc. The thalamus has to do with sensory things. The basal ganglia is related to fine movement, and the limbic system contains the amygdala, cingulate, septum, and hippocampus.Lecture 3 (January 27th)What is sensory communication? Describe the phantom limb. What are the receptor cells? Describe the nature of information. What do we “see”? Describe parts of the eye and their functions. What is perception? What are some learned factors? Are cells modifiable?- Sensory communication is the brain communicating with your senses.- The phantom limb is the sensation that an amputated or missing limb is still attached to the body and is moving with your other body parts. - The model of sensory communication is:o Energytransducerencodingdecodingo Stimulusreceptorneuronbraino Electromagnetic waveeyeoptic nerveoccipital lobe- Resting potential = receptor potential- Action potential = generator potential- ReceptorNeuronBrain- There are bipolar cells (going to the optic nerve), amicrine cells (connect ganglia cells), and horizontal cells that connect the receptors. - The nature of information comes from intensity and quality. Intensity is the frequency and relative frequency of nerve activity and quality is the anatomical encoding hear the light and see the sound- We see visible light wavelength but there is a whole spectrum. The spectrum includes: Gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet light, visible light, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves.The process by which we see things goes from the electromagnetic wave to our eye, then our optic nerve to the occipital lobe. - The eye consists of many parts. There is the iris (pigmentation), pupil (where light entersand because of that its size is light dependent), sclera (maintains structure and fluid), and there are two types of receptors. Rods (peripheral) and cones (in the middle of the eye). Rods are more sensitive and cones are more accurate. When light enters the eyes it goes to the cornea, then the pupil, then the retina.- Perception is contributed to Gestalt psychology having to do with the saying that there ismore to seeing than meets the eye. - Some learned factors that we have


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