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NDSU HDFS 230 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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SOC 102 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide - Chapter 1: The science of development-Developmental Theory:o Development- Individual change, growth, and adaptation within the environmento Nature (Biology) vs. Nurture (Environment)o Continuity (change gradually over time in steady slope) vs. Discontinuous (We change in stages)- 6 Basic Principles of Lifespan Theory1.) Multidimensional (They tend to overlap)a.) Physical-Size, appearance, function, motor skills, etc.b.) Cognitive-Intellect, attention, memory, language, etc.c.) Socio-emotional-Interpersonal skills, relationships, etc.-Emotions, Self-concept2.) Lifelong ProcessOntogenesis- a lifelong process of change, growth, and adaptationEx: Biological-Motor skillsCognitive- IntelligenceSocio-Emotional- Intimacy3.) Multidirectional-Gains and losses across life-Losses not always bad-Relatively more gains earlier in lifeEx: Biological- Brain synapsesCognitive- attentionSocio-Emotional- friendships4.) Multidisciplinary-We cannot all be experts in every area of human development-Genetics and neuroscience are two of the newer disciplines in lifespan development5.) Plasticity- range of possibilities and variability of developmental trajectories and outcomes. (Over time you loose plasticity)-Potential for change-Range is not limitless- constrained to biologyEx: Biological- bodyCognitive- Language learningSocio emotional- personality6.) Development is contextual-Context- environment or surroundings-Constantly changing historical, cultural contextEx: Biological- NutritionCognitive- exposure to music or languageSocio-emotional- Family Dynamics-Developmental Theories1.) Psychoanalytico Unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavioro Freudo Erik Erikson’s psychosocial stages 8 developmental stages with a challenging developmental crisis Built on Freud’s theory; but, he also described three adult stages 2.) Learning theoriesa. Behaviorism o Focus on observable behavioro Describes processes by which behavior is learned o Conditioning: processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli-> learningb. Classical conditioning-Ian Pavlov o Learn to associate neutral stimulus with meaningful stimulus-> same responsec. Operant conditioning- B.F. Skinnero Learning process in which a particular action is followed by either something desired (reinforcement) or something unwanted (punishment) d. Social learning theory-Bandurao Influence other people have over a persons behavior o Observational learning e. Modeling-people learn by observing other people and then copying them3.) Cognitive theories a. Thoughts and expectations profoundly affect actionb. Changes in how people think over timec. Jean Piaget d. 4 stageso Sensorimotoro Preoperationalo Concrete operationalo Formal operational4.) Systems theoriesa. Change in one part of a person, family, or society affects every aspect of developmentb. Ecological systems approach: Bronfenbrennero The person can only be understood within his/her context c. Five components of B’s systemo Microsystem: immediate surroundingso Mesosystem: cross connectionso Exosystem: local institutionso Macrosystem: larger social settingo Chronosystem: changes in person or environment over time. - Research methodso Identify problemo Formulate hypothesiso Collect datao Analyze data/draw conclusionso Disseminate findings -Data Collectiono Self report: Diary  Interview Survey/questionnaireo Observation Naturalistic: natural settings Laboratory: controlled settingo Behavioral and performance measures Physiological: MRI, PET Skills: standardized tests -Correlation vs. Experiments- Experimental studieso Establish causal relationships among variableso Randomly assign individuals to groups Experimental and comparisonGive each group different treatmento IV: manipulatedo DV: outcomeo Often unethical or impossible - Correlational studies o Relate variables as they naturally occuro Can determine the strength and direction of relationship Positive if both variables increase or decrease Negative if one variable increases and one decreases o Correlation is not causation - Cross-sectional designo Tests different age groups at the same timeo Drawbacks: cohort effects; doesn’t test individual differences o Benefits: easy and quick- Longitudinal designo Tests same group of participants over time o Drawbacks: time consuming, expensive, drop out, practice effectso Benefits: individual differences -Chapter 2 Genes and Prenatal Development-Genotype- The genetic makeup of a cell-Phenotype- The outward appearance of an organism-Chromosomes- Molecule of DNSo Sex Chromosome- 1 pairXX- FemaleXY- Male-Gene- specific sections of a chromosome that carry chemical instructionso 4 Pairs (AT, TA, CG, GC)o 3 Billion-Sex Cellso Gametes:  Reproductive cells (sperm and ova) Each gamete consists of 23 chromosomeso Meiosis - Reductional division creating gametes-Genes take different forms known as alleleso Vary slightly in their codes from one person to another Homozygous: same e.g. AA or aa Heterozygous: different e.g. Aa-Dominant Recessiveo 1 dominant copy-> Dominant gene expressiono Incomplete dominance- effect of recessive gene can sometimes be noticedEx: Hazel Eyes-Recessive-Recessiveo Inherit two copies of one gene- expressive gene expressed Odds are 1/4-Carriero Genotype includes a gene but not expressed in the phenotypeo Unexpressed genes occur in half of the carriers gametes-Sex-linked inheritanceo For males a recessive gene on the X chromosome can be expressesEx: Colorblindness, hemophilia-Gene environment interactionso Environment can affect the expression of genes. o Without genes no behavior would existo Without environment, no genes could be expressed-Range of reactiono Each persons unique genetically determined response to the environment- Genetic-environmental correlations: Gene influence the environments to which we are exposedo Early in life: Passive correlation: parents provide environments influenced by their own heredity Evocative correlation: children evoke responses influenced by their heredityo Later in life:  Active (niche-picking) actively choose environments that complement our genes.-Prenatal-Birth- Fetal brain signals the release of oxytocin to trigger contractions and labor beginso Average duration for first time labor is 12 hourso Quicker labor for later born baby-3 Stages of Birtho Stage 1 Dilation and effacement (12


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