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SC EXSC 223 - Chapter One

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1. Chemical LevelAtoms combine to form moleculesInteractions allow us to live, sense, and communicate2. Cellular levelCells are made up of moleculesStructures become basis of lifeCells communicate3. Tissue levelTissues consist of similar types of cells4. Organ levelOrgans are made up of different types of tissues5. Organ system levelOrgan systems consist of different organs that work together closelyFunction together in a semi coordinated manor6. Organismal levelThe human organism is made up of many organ systemsAnatomy: the structure of body parts and their relationships to one anotherGross anatomy: study of large structures (e.g. heart, lungs etc.); what you can see with the naked eyeSurface anatomy: internal body structures as they relate to the skin (e.g. picture of body builder)Microscopic anatomy:1. Cytology: study of cells2. Histology: study of tissuesDevelopmental anatomy:1. EmbryologyPhysiology: the function of the living systems; how does it work; explainable only in terms of the underlying anatomyOften divided into systems: two or more organs that cooperate to form a particular function11 systems1. skeletal2. muscular3. respiratory4. integumentary5. reproductive6. nervous7. endorcrine8. cardiovascular9. lyphatic10. renal11. digestiveStructure and Function relationshipPrinciple of complementarity of structure and functionFunction is dependent on structure and that the form of a structure relates to its functionAnatomy is critical to the physiology, determines what type of function can take placeLife processes: Unique Characteristics of living thingsMaintain boundaries: membranes (on a cellular level); skin is a boundary to the environmentMovement: skeletal muscles; white blood cell movementResponsiveness: cells have membrane potential; depolarizationDigestion: breaking things downMetabolism: breaking down and building new thingsCatabolism: build upAnabolism: break downExcretion: cells and organs can excrete; normally trying to eliminateGrowth: cell multiplication; bone growth; cells get biggerReproduction: continuance of speciesHomeostasis: a dynamic state of equilibrium which maintains a relatively constant internal environmentPhysiology studies “maintenance of the internal environment”Lack of consistency in the internal environment leads to a disease stateHow do we establish homeostasis:Feedback systems:1. negative feedback: most common; goal is to maintain or restore balance; negative feedback goal is to eliminate the stimulus; self limiting; ex. thermoregulation-stimulus-imbalance-receptor (detects imbalance)-relays info via afferent pathway (input)-sends to control center (brain primary control system; CNS; determines how to responds and sends instruction)-output via efferent pathway-response2. positive feedback: amplyfing; start off with a weak stimulus and makes it stronger; goal magnify the original stimulus; self sustatining ex. clotting- when we cut ourselves we activate platelets to release chemicals-platelets adhere to site and release chemicals-stops by forming new homeostasis-another example is uterine contractions-oxytocin released and contractions increase in smooth muscle-more contractions more release of oxytocin leads to even more contractionsHomeostatic imbalance and diseaseBlood glucose and insulinType 1 diabetes: ex of negative feedback not working (homeostatic imbalance); insulin not madeType 2 diabetes: insulin is less able to stimulate glucose uptake into cells; consequence is elevated blood sugarCatalystSubstance that:lowers the energy of activationincrease the rate of a reactionwithout being consumed in the reactioncatalysts allow us to have the same reaction occur but at a lower energy requirement; also occurs fasterex. is an enzymebiological catalystscan exist as 2 parts:1. Apoenzymes: protein portion2. cofactor: assist the reactionSubstrates (S) ex. amino acids join with enzyme at the active site; enzyme substrate complex is formed; energy is absorbed and bond is formed; water is released; product ex. dipeptide; enzyme is then ready to pick up another substrateCatalysts: up rate without being chemically changedReaction rates are influenced by:Temperature(high)=high rateParticle size(small)=high rateConcentration of reactant(high)=high ratepH(low)=low rateEnergy is the capacity to do workATP is most abundantEnergy forms:Chemical energy: ATP-ADPElectrical energy: nerve impulsesMechanical energy: muscle shorteningRadiant energy: light waves, visionATPAdenosine triphosphate, ribose sugar with hydroxyl group, phosphate groups with high energy bondsHigh energy bond broken to form ADPThe last energy bond can be broken to prom AMPPhosphorylatingAcid: a compound which donates a hydrogen ion (H+) to another compound called a baseAcids breakdown into H+ + Anion-Ex. HCL-H+ + Cl-Ex. H2CO3-H+ + HCO3-PH: Acid Base ConcentrationInverse and logarithmic; a pH 5 solution has 10 times more H+ than a pH 6 solutionAcididc solutions: greater H+= lower pH; acidic pH 0-6.99Acid Base HomeostasispH change interferes with cell function and may damage living tissueslight change in pH can be fatalpH is regulated by kidneys lungs, and buffersBuffers: mixture of compounds that resist pH changesCarbonic acid-bicarbonate systemHeavy breathing-trying to bring pH back to normal levelCarbonic acid is a buffer in our blood; helps to prevent large swings in pHH2CO3 (h+ donor, weak acid)--------(response to rise in pH) HCO3—(H+acceptor, weak base) + H+ (proton)Convert strong (completely dissociated) acids or bases into weak (slightly dissociated) onesThe Cell TheoryCell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organismsOrganism activity depends on individual and collective activities of cellsPrinciple of complementarity: specific subcellular structures dictate biochemical activities; ex. red blood cells don’t have a nucleus or mitochondriaContinuity of life has a cellular basisEukaryotes share 3 major parts:NucleusCytoplasmPlasma membraneDiversity of cells within human bodyCells that connect body parts, form linings, transport gasesCells that move organs and body partsCell that stores nutrientsCells that fights diseaseCell that gathers information and controls body functionsCell of reproductionCytosol: viscous; does not include organellesCytoplasm: includes organellesCytoskeleton elopements:MicrotubuleCentrioles are the basis for which microtubules existIntermediate filamentsNucleus: DNA stored and read; RNA and ribosomes is also made is the nucleolus in


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