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TAMU ANSC 303 - Water II and Nutrient Analysis and Utilization I

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ANSC 303 1st Edition Lecture 8Outline of Last Lecture I. WaterII. Body Water Composition III. Body, Water, and AgeIV. Functionsa. Solventb. Transportationc. Chemical reactionsd. Lubrication and cushioninge. Transfer of light and soundf. Regulation of temperatureg. Regulation of ionic concentrationsV. Sources of WaterVI. Where Does Water Absorption and Loss OccurVII. Water in FeedVIII. Metabolic WaterIX. Factors Affecting Water IntakeX. How Much WaterOutline of Current Lecture I. Water IIa. Water and Animal Healthb. Electrolytesc. Electrolyte Composition of Body Fluidd. Osmotic Pressuree. Osmolarity f. Electrolyte ConcentrationII. Nutrient Analysis and Utilization Ia. Chemical Analysisb. Types of Laboratory Analysisi. Proximate Analysis These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.1. Determines:a. Dry Matterb. Ashc. Crude Proteind. Ether Extracte. Crude Fiberf. Nitrogen Free Extractii. Detergent Analysis System iii. Near Infrared Reflectanceiv. Specialized MethodsCurrent LectureI. Water IIA. Water and Animal Health a A lack of water can lead to impaction (colic) in horsesb A fluid media is needed for fiber fermentation in the hindgutc Bloodstream is the best way to pull water into the gastrointestinal systemi. Hydration status declinesii. Blood to gut flow = transmural blood movementd When water is deprived there is fluid movement from the gut to the vasculari. Dry fiber in the large intestine becomes impactedii. This leads to a decrease it gut motility iii. Impaction leads to abdominal pain (primary sign of colic)e Rehydrate the horse (IV fluids)f Rehydrate GI tract (nasogastric tube from nose to GI tract contains oil andwater)i. The oil allows for lubricationii. The water allows for rehydration g Reasons for impaction colic:i. Low quality feed stuffii. No wateriii. Dry digestaiv. Feedstuff becomes lodged in the GI tractB. Electrolytesa Anions (-) ant cations (+) are distributed throughout the fluid compartmentsb pH balance and electrolyte numbers are relatedc Cationsi. Na (primary)ii. K (primary)iii. Ca iv. Mgv. Look at Na and K to keep an animal alive under extreme circumstancesvi. Ca and Mg have a weaker influence on the electrolyte balanced Anionsi. Cl (primary)ii. HCO3iii. SO4iv. Proteinsv. Lactic acid1. Not normally seen in the animal2. When it is present in the body, it acts as an extreme acid3. The acid s not goode Critical maintenance of acid/base balancesi. Blood pHii. Very tightly regulatedf NaCl is a good way to regulate electrolytes i. Contains the primary cation and the primary anionC. Electrolyte Composition of Body Fluida Na is high in the plasma and interstitial fluidb Na is low in the intracellular waterc Na is the primary extracellular cationd Cl is high in the plasma and interstitial fluide Cl is low in the intracellular waterf Cl is the primary extracellular aniong K high in intracellular waterh Protein and others high in intracellular wateri The numbers of cation and anions are always equal D. Osmotic Pressurea Electrolyte balance and the corresponding movement of water b Osmotic pressure - develops when two solutions of different concentrations are separated by a membrane i. Water moves via osmosisii. Move Na and water followsc K high in cell, Na high outsidei. The is unnaturalii. Due to concentration gradient, Na should want to travel into cell and K travel out of cell iii. ATP drives the pumping of K in cell and Na out of cell d Osmotic pressure can cause a cell to rupture (too much water) or collapse(not enough water)E. Osmolaritya Body's extracellular volume of water is determined by the cell's osmolarity b Osmolrity is concentration of solute in solution c Used to maintain blood pHi. Control cations and anionsii. Raise pH, hold cations and excrete anionsiii. Lower pH hold anions and excrete cationsiv. Short term control 1. LungsA. Excrete CO2B. CO2 acts as an acid in blood2. If blood pH is low, the animal will hyperventilatev. Chronic control1. GI tractA. Controls what you want to absorb B. The body can tell the GI tract not to absorb specificthings if the body does not need it2. KidneysA. Controls what exits the body F. Electrolyte Concentration a Useful in treating dehydration i. Most useful in neonatal animals ii. They are sensitive to dehydration iii. Take in a lot of electrolytesiv. Dehydration occurs more during:1. Diarrhea2. Summer3. Heat stress4. Exerciseb Methods of administrationi. IV1. Isotonic saline2. Water and salt3. Balanced electrolytes4. Cannot pump in tap waterii. Feediii. Salt block iv. Concentrated electrolytes1. The water dilutes the electrolytes2. You don’t know if the animal takes in enough of the electrolytes II. Nutrient Analysis and Utilization IA. Chemical Analysisa National Research Councili. Publications that show the list of nutrient requirements and the nutrient content of common feedstuffs for a SPECIFIC SPECIESii. These are averages only iii. Similar to the human's Recommended Daily Allowancesiv. Updated every 10 - 12 yearsv. Use to evaluate grainsvi. Do NOT use to evaluate forages1. The numbers are not accurate2. Each forage sample is harvested, stored, and treated differentlyvii. Do NOT use for by-product feeds1. The processing differsb Laboratory analysisi. Specific for your sample (make sure you gather an accurate sample)ii. Commercial laboratoriesIII. Types of Laboratory AnalysisA. Proximate analysisa Seen on feed tagsb Groups substances in terms of common chemical characteristicsc Developed in 1800s by a German lab d German equivalent of USDAe Defines the nutrient levels within feedstufff Determines:i. Dry matter (and water)1. Take a dry sample and remove the water2. Heat at 100 - 105C for 48 - 72 hours3. If you place a 100 g sample into the oven and it weighs 87 g after, the sample was 13 g (13%) waterii. Ash 1. Total minerals2. Inorganiciii. Crude protein1. Nitrogen 2. Expensive ingredient3. Kjeldahl ProcedureA. The sample is exposed to sulfuric acidB. Sulfuric acid converts N to ammonium sulfateC. Back calculate the amount of N from the amount ofammonium sulfateD. CP calculated from the back calculations of Na. CP = N x 6.254. Does not distinguish between different types of nitrogen 5. Gives no indication of protein qualityA. Digestibility?B. Types of amino acids?6. Does not tell you if the protein are Nitrogen-protein or non-nitrogen protein7. Non-nitrogen & monogastricA.


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