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WSU BIO_ENG 140 - Bio101 Spring 2015

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Bio102 - Introductory BiologyJanuary 12, 2015-overview of the syllabus-get textbook from The BookieNotes- Characteristics of life:o Respond to external stimulio Alter the environmento Sense the environmento Adapt to the environmento Use energyo Reproduceo Contain materials only found in living organismso Maintain constant internal environmento Have a high degree of organization- To maintain these nine characteristics, we need to practice homeostasiso Positive feedback – enhances and continues to increase levelso Negative feedback – counteracts and reduces levelso Living things can only survive in a very narrow range of tolerances – temperature, pH, salinity….o Feedback loops and homeostasis Stimulus-something is too high or too low (change in heat, high temperature) Receptors-body part that picks up on the change (pain receptor, temperature receptor, skin, the nervous system) Control center-something has to change, something is responsible for making that change (adjust fluid balance, chemically, hormonally) Effectors- what brings level back to normal, what’s responsible for makingthe chance  Response-levels are back to where they are supposed to beJanuary 14, 2015- Natural organization: o Chemical - atoms and DNA, basis of lifeo cellular – a whole collection of cells that are almost identical, all working togethertowards the same purposeo tissue – most organs are made up of two or more types of tissueo organ – organs that are more related - hierarchy of life beyond the individualo individual or species – a single human or animal o human population – a group of individualso biological community – all the living organisms that interact togethero ecosystem – in addition to all the living organism, we add the nonliving components. o Biosphere – all of the parts of our existence where life can exist. Which includes the atmosphere, the lithosphere, and the hydrosphere and anywhere life can exist.- Human biology is structured and logicalo Prokaryotes have two domains – eubacteria and archaebacterialo Eukaryotes have one domain – eukaryotes  1st sort – does it have a nucleus and internal membranes? No – prokaryote Yes – eukaryote o Eukaryotes have four kingdoms Protista, animals, fungus, and plants  Protista, animalia, fungi, plantaeo Prokaryotes bring down two domains and have same kingdoms (eubacteria and archaebacteria)- Kingdom – Animalia are all multicellular organisms that ingest nutrients rather than synthesize them- Phylum – chordata all animals with a vertebral column or dorsal hollow notochord, a structure along the top of animals that protect their central nervous system. - Class – mammalia all vertebrates with placenta development, mammary glands, hair or fur, and a tail located behind the anus. - Order – primates are mammals adapted to life in trees with opposable thumbs - Family – hominidae are primates that move primarily with bipedal (two footed locomotion)- Genus – homo hominids with large brain cases or skullsJanuary 21, 2015TEST FRIDAYYYYYY- what are the origins of modern humans?o the human ancestors are dead twigs on the family tree the order primate is characterized by five digit hands with an opposable thumb, finger nails and toe nails, and stereoscopic vision with forward facing eyes. a 12th of a percent difference in terms of the genetic makeup compared to chimpanzees and apes. most scientist agree on a basic pathway out of Africa when primates beganto walk upright as its usual form of locomotion. - homo sapiens posses an upright, bipedal stance, an opposable thumb, an enlarged brain case, and the capacity for complex speech and communication. - Omo I and Omo II (H.s.) put the emergence of modern humans at about 195,000 years ago. o H. Sapiens started migrating and populating the globe 100-140,000 years ago ???? outcompeted all other hominid species- how do we interact?- what is our role- what sort of force do we exert on the environment - where do we come from and where do we fit?o energy flows while nutrients cycle. energy flows in one direction radiation – when a campfire releases heat  convection – when the heat is in the air around it and bouncing off the air around it, heating those molecules. it’s a fluid in this state conduction – when we have the heat going from object to objecto think of nutrients as chemicals and compoundso the sun is the primary source of energy Light energy from the sun goes to the producers, the producers convert it to chemicals that can be stored. This is known as photosynthesis.o nutrition cycle: Producers: make own food consumers: eat other consumers and/pr producers decomposers: break down dead matter abiotic nutrients: nonliving- what does the human body have in common with the world around it?o important systems  system  basic concept underlying symptom skeletomuscular  protein structure/function nervous  osmosis/diffusion, cell structure, function sensory  cell structure/function cutaneous  energy flow, protein structure,/function lymphatic  protein structure/function cardiovascular  osmosis/diffusion respiratory  osmosis/diffusion digestive  energy flow urinary  osmosis/diffusion endocrine  protein structure/function, osmosiso we are consumers, consumers can’t make food from light energy. we must obtain it from other organisms. January 28, 2015- in class assignment-ionic bonds and drawing atoms- life has a unique chemistryo elements are made of atoms smallest possible piece of an elemento atomic structure is the foundation of life first orbital-2 second orbital-8o ionic bond- strongest bond, sharing an electron. saying its ionic means it has a charge (negative or positive) and it donated or gave up an electron. o ion- donated or accepted an electron, now carries a chargeo polar covalent bond-) has a stronger pull on the shared electron. O side is slightly negative and the H side is slightly positiveo hydrogen bond- slight positive charge forms attractive bonds with nearby molecules.- Six Properties of Water are Critical to Lifeo water is liquid at room temperature most other elements that have same kind of numbers as water molecules are gases. water does not turn into a gas. important from a chemistry perspectiveo water is a good solvent the solvent is what is going get a compound to break up ex: putting sugar and


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