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WSU MBIOS 101 - MBios101 Spring2015

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MBios101: Introduction to MicrobiologyJanuary 14, 2015- G84 will always have copies of assignmentsNotes:- Less than 1% of bacteria can cause disease- Every pH and temperature you can think of is a bacteria’s natural habit- Examples of microbiology application: digest oil spills, garbage in landfills, jeans,drool with healing properties, extracting penicillin, vaccine, silk- Did not see first virus until 1945. Developed in the 1930s until perfected.- Microscopy History:o 1665- Robert Hook: 1st to observe cells thus named cells or little bones  He was a linen maker. His hobby was to grind glass and make it round. He would show his friends his home made microscopy. Was not a scientist. - Bacteria cells: all prokaryoteso Have a wide array of living places, will find them virtually in any type of ecosystem.January 21, 2015- the flagella allows an anchor – attachmento ex: heliobactor pylori - causes stomach ulcers stomach ulcers – open wound in the lining of your stomach- discovered in the 80s that there was a bacteria- this bacteria pierces and hooks itself into the lining of the stomach- to treat stomach ulcers we give antibiotic stomach pH 2 HClo campylobacter jejuni – intestinal tracto virbrio cholera also attaches like a hook - movement through tissueo ex: listeria travel to fetus – kills  grows flagella female in first trimester, bacteria travels to intestinal tract, travels to placenta and kills fetus. otherwise, past first trimester or man or female, will cause diarrhea. - cell wallso plant and bacteria both have cell wallso tells shape of bacteriao three types Gram positive cell wall- (ex. staphylococcus aureus)- thick peptoglycan layer  protein/sugar structure is a series of glycan rods held together by tetrapeptide chains very sensitive to (denatures proteins) heating, (pH changes)acids, peniccillin  if it is purple, it is Gram positive Gram negative cell wall- (ex: E. coli)- thin peptidoglycan layer- LPS – lipopolysaccharide- lipid  0157: H7 E. Coli marker use as markers- Lipid A  if cell dies release an endotoxin- causes “full body shut down”  destroys heart, liver, kidneys- hard to treat can’t use antibiotics- kill cell it kills you- stains pink Atypical cell wallo 1884 Hans Christian Gram developed “Gram” stain based on cell wall anatomyJanuary 23, 2015- cell wall comprised of high concentration of hydrophobic wzy/lipid (cholesterol based)o mycolic acid o ex: mycobacterium so.  ex. leprosy (armadillos) tuberculosis – TB ex. Norcardia- cell membraneo selective barriero move things in and out of cello comprised at phospholipid bilayero tail – hydrophobico head-hydrophilic- cell membraneo 1) transport –simple diffusion- facilitated diffusion nonspecific transporter- facilitated diffusion specific transportero 2) flaggelum located in cell membraneo energy production atp one adenosine, three phosphate high energy bond, break release energy- bacteriao 1 glucose  38 atp 1. glycolysis 2. acetylCOA 3. kreb’s cycle electron transport chain cell membraneJanuary 28, 2015- lab tomorrow, study for quiz and print out procedures. - newspaper, “Influenza’s Influence” - DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid o alpha helix (got a twist to it)o double strandedo 5 carbon sugar-deoxyriboseo phosphate backboneo base pairs Adenine A-T Thymine Guanine G-C Cytosine- Nucleoid o DNA-circular genetics protein “cookbook”/information- Plasmid o extra piece of DNAo can code for “antibiotic resistance”- we can insert genetic information to make productso ex: silk, growth hormone, insulino once we figure out genetic sequence, we can make copies - Replication o binary fissiono 1 248 16 etc cellso everything in that cell has to double. food energizes this process parent cell replicate (copy) all material - nucleoid- ribosomes- cell wall etc two daughter cells genetically identical o replication time depend on microbe and environment pH, temperature, nutrients ex. E. Coli every 30 minutes, TB every few days.- Endospores some organisms (ex). clostridium sp, bacillus sp can produce a “long term”/”resting” cell have found in 7,500 year old mud flats, dust in tombs, soil if condition look bad, limited resources vegetative cell growing  sporulates produce endospores- endospore characteristicso double cell membraneo thicker peptidoglycan layer (cell walls)o gram positive organismo resistant to heating, chemical treatments, antibiotico thick waxy outer coato ex: clostridium tetani  tetanuso CL. perfinges  hus gangreneo CL botulinum  botulismo Bacillus anthracis ? anthrax February 2, 2015- life needs:o nutrients food carbohydrates lipids protein-amino acids vitamins minerals watero bacteria can also be found in a large number of environment because of  temperature pH oxygen +1- osmotic pressure ^^ all for microbes- vitaminso cellular functionso fat soluble vitamins vitamin K  blood clot vitamin A eye, goblet cells (mucus production) vitamin D calcium absorption- bone health vitamin E  antioxidant cell healtho water soluble vitamins vitamin C  collagen production antioxidanto all B vitamins thiamin riboflavin niacin pantothenic acid biotin folate vitamin B6 vitamin B12 ^^ all ATP production and other things o n  protein, DNA, mRNA, ATPo P ATP, phospholipid DNA –PO4 backbone mRNA – PO4 backboneo K  action potential/nerveo Na “ “ “ K and Na help water balanceo CL  HCLo (ATP) S disulfide bonds – protein structure vitamin B1o Fe  RBCo Zn antioxidant- carbohydrates  sugarso molecular structure: carbon, hydrogen, oxygeno function: produce ATP (fuel) adenosine triphosphateo types of carbohydrateso 1.) monosaccharides one sugar molecule glucose  blood sugar fructose  fruit sugar galactose  milk sugaro 2.) disaccharides  two sugars linked together maltose  bread, beer sucrose  table sugar lactose  milk sugaro 3.) polysacharrides  glycogen- stored forms of glucose in animal cells starch – stored form of glucose in plant cells cellulose –plant cell wallo lipids (carbons, hydrogens, oxygen) 1. triglycerides - function (ATP-energy)o protection – heart, muscleo insulation- hot and coldFebruary 4, 2015o phospholipids  cell walls-


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