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ODU PSYC 322 - Intro to Adolescence, its biological foundations, and its development

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PSYC 322 1st EditionExam# 1 Study Guide Chapters: 1 - 3Chapter 1:Key Terms & Concepts to Know:- Millennials- born after 1980- Stereotype- generalization- Social Policy- protect welfare- Adolescence- period of transition/prep for adulthood- Resilience- positive adaptation to terrible circumstances- Project Competence- experience adversity and survive to become a competent adult- Nature- biological inheritance- Nurture- environmental experiences- Continuity- gradual development- Discontinuity- spikes of development or lack of development- Theory- interrelated, coherent set of ideas- Hypothesis- specific assertion that can be RETESTED- Psychoanalytic theories- unconscious, colored by emotion- Cognitive theories- conscious thoughts- Information processing theory- manipulate & monitor- Standardized test- uniform- Physiological measures- hormones in bloodstream- Case study- study of single, unique individual- Descriptive research- no causation hypothesis, just description- Correlational research- prediction, no causation- Correlation coefficient- ranges from (-1)(1)- Experimental research- causality!- Cross sectional research- study people all at one time- Longitudinal research- same individuals over a period of time- Bias- Gender/Cultural/Ethnic biasKey People & Their Views:- G Stanley Hall- Storm & Stress- Mead- Sociocultural view- Damon- immediate gratification- Freud- 5 stages of psychosexual theory- Erikson- psychosocial theory- Piaget- four stages of cognitive developmental theory- Vygotsky- sociocultural cognitive theory- Skinner- operant conditioning- Al Bandura- behavior and environment- Bronfenbrenner- ecological theory- Jane Goodall- natural observationChapter 2:Key Terms & Concepts to Know:- Hormones- secreted by endocrine system- Androgens- testosterone- Estrogens- estradiol- Testosterone- voice changes, sexual desire & activity- Estradiol- breast development & uterine development- Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG)- Adrenarche- changes in adrenal glands- Gonadarche- maturity of primary (gonads) and secondary (breasts) sexual characteristics- Menarche- begin of menstruation- Spermarche- first ejaculation of semen- Growth Spurt- rapid growth, most since infancy- Sexual Maturation- Precocious Puberty- rapid progression- Body Image- adolescents are preoccupied- Berkeley Longitudinal Study- early maturing boys perceived selves more positively while girls perceived selves more negatively - Suicide- 3rd cause of death in adolescents- Genetics- DNA- Genotype- actual genetic material- Phenotype- physical traits and psychological characteristics- Behavior genetics- influence of heredity on environment leading to individual differences- Epigenetics- how heredity and environment work togetherChapter 3:Key Terms & Concepts to Know:- Neuron- contain axon, dendrites, cell body- Myelination- axon covered and insulated with fat cells, increases info processing- White matter- myelinated axons- Gray matter- dendrites and cell body- Synaptogenesis- increase in synapses- Neurotransmitters- carry info across synaptic gap between neurons- Structural changes- to corpus callosum, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala- Corpus callosum- connect two halves of brain- Prefrontal cortex- judgment- Amygdala- limbic system, emotions- Hippocampus- memory- Olfactory bulb- smell- Assimilation- incorporation of new info into existing knowledge- Accommodation- adjustment of schema to new info- Equilibration- shift in thought from one state to another- Formal operational stage- abstract thought- Hypothetical deductive reasoning- solving problems and developing hypotheses- Post-formal stage- Piaget’s 5th stage, reflective, relativistic, contextual- Wisdom- expert knowledge- Info Processing- how info gets into adolescent’s minds and how the retrieve it- Four kinds of attention- self, divided, sustained, executive- Memory- short-term, working, long-term- Metacognition- thinking about thinking- Dual-process model- analytical, experimental- Convergent thinking- produces one correct answer- Divergent thinking- produces more than one answer to single problem- Expertise- more content than others- Analytical intelligence- anyze, judge, evaluate, compare, contrast- Creative intelligence- create, design, imagine- Practical intelligence- ability to use, apply, implement- Heredity- strong influence on intelligence- Egocentrism- belief that others are interested in you- Imaginary audience- attention getting- Personal fable- unique and invulnerableKey People & Their Views:- Piaget- schemas- Vygotsky- zone of proximal development- Pressley- strategy instruction in schools- Alfred Binet- mental age- William Stern- IQ- David Wechsler- Wechsler Scales- Robert J. Sternberg- Triarchic Theory- Howard Gardner- 8 Frames of Mind- Goleman- “Emotional Intelligence” (1995)- David Elkind- two types of social thinkingNote: The quizzes provided by the professor online are your best study tool along with this


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