New version page

ODU PSYC 410 - Exam 1 Study Guide

Type: Study Guide
Pages: 10
Documents in this Course
Load more

This preview shows page 1-2-3 out of 10 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 10 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

PSYC 410 1st Edition Exam#1 Study Guide Lectures: 1-4Chapter 1: Introduction to Cognitive Psychology- Questions to Consider in this Chaptero How is cognitive psychology relevant to everyday experience? Cognitive psychology is relevant to everyday experience because ithelps people use the cognitive abilities to get through day to day events. For example, problem solving and decision makingo Are there practical applications of cognitive psychology? There are practical applications of cognitive psychology. o How is it possible to study the inner working of the mind when we can’treally see the mind directly? Using behavioral and physiological approaches together results in a more complete understanding of the mind operates than using either one alone. o What is the connection between computer and the study of the mind? The connection is that they each process information in stages.- Key Termsoo Analytic introspection- participants trained to describe experiences and thought processes in response to stimulio Behavior Approach- measures relationship between stimuli and behavioro Choice reaction time-participant pushes one button if light is on right, another if light is on lefo Cognition- mental processes such as perception attention, memory, and so on, that are what the mind doeso Cognitive psychology- is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of the mind processes involved in perception, attention, memory, language, problem solving, reasoning, and decision makingo Mental chronometry- measures how long a genitive process takeso Mind- creates and controls mental capacities/functions such as perception, attention, memory, emotions, language, deciding, thinking, and reasoning, and creates mental representations of the world o Physiological approach- measures relationship between physiology and behavioro Reaction time-measures interval between stimulus presentation and person’s to stimuluso Simple reaction time-participant pushes a button quickly afer a light appearso Structuralism- experience determined by combining elements of experience called sensation- Chapter reviewo The first laboratory of scientific psychology, founded by Wundt in 1879, was concerned largely with studying the mind. Structuralism was the dominant theoretical approach of the laboratory, and analytic introspection was one of the major methods and use of collect datao In the first decades of the 20th century, John Watson founded behaviorism, partly in reaction to structuralism and the method of analytic introspection. His procedures were based on the classical conditioning. Behaviorism’s central tenet was that psychology was properly studied by measuring observable behavior, and that invisible mental processes were not valid for the study of psychology.o In the 1950s, a number of events occurred that led to what has been called the cognitive revolution- a decline in the influence of behaviorism and the reemergence of the study of the mind. These events included thefollowing: (a) Chomsky’s critique of Skinner’s book Verbal Behavior; (b) the introduction of the digital computer and the idea that the mind processes information in stages, like computer; (c) Cherry’s attention experiments and Broadbent’s introduction of flow diagrams to depict the processes involved in attention; and (d) interdisciplinary conferences at Dartmouth and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.o The phenomenon of memory consolidation was used to illustrate how answering one question can lead to many additional questions and how cognitive psychologist studies the mind by using both behavioral and physiological approaches. o Models play an essential role in cognitive psychology, by helping organize data from many experiments. Broadbent’s model of attention is an example of one of the early models in cognitive psychology. It is important to realize that models ofen do not correspond to areas I the brain.o Two things that may help in learning the material in this book are to read the study hints in chapter 7, which are based on some of the things we know about memory research, and to realize that the is book constructedlike a story, with basic ideas or principles followed by supporting evidence.Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience- Questions to consider in this chapter o What is cognitive neuroscience, and why is it necessary? Cognitive neuroscience is the study of the physiological basis of cognition and it is necessary because it addressed the questions ofhow psychological/cognitive functions are produced by neural circuits in the brain. o How is information transmitted from one place to another in the nervous system? Information is transmitted from one place to another by neurons.o How are things in the environment, such as faces and trees, representedin the brain? Things in the environment are represented in the brain by visual perception.o Is it possible to read a person’s mind by measuring the activity of the person’s brain? It is possible to read a person’s mind by measuring activity of the person’s brain by using electrical receptors.- Key Termso Amygdala- emotions and emotional memorieso Axon-tube filled with fluid that transmits electrical signal to other neuronso Brian imaging- measures brain activation by measuring blood flow in the braino Cell body- contains mechanisms to keep cell aliveo Cerebral cortex- 3-mm thick layer that covers the braino Cognitive neuroscience- the study of the physiological basis of cognitiono Dendrites- multiple branches reaching from the cell body, which receives information from other neuronso Distributed coding- representation by a pattern of firing across a number of neuronso Event-related potential (ERP)- measures electrical activity on the scalp and make inferences about underlying brain activityo Extrastriate body area (EBA)- responds to pictures of bodies and parts of bodieso Frontal lobe (front of brain)- reasoning/planning; language, thought, memory, and motor functioningo Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)- measures blood flow through magnetic properties of bloodo Fusiform face area (FFA)- responds to faces, temporalo Hippocampus- forming memorieso Neural code- The pattern of neural firing that represents an environment stimuluso Neuron- cells specialized to receive and transmit information in the nervous systemo Neurotransmitter- chemicals that affect the electrical signal of the receiving neurono Occipital lobe


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?