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UT Knoxville PSYC 330 - Intro to Anxiety Disorders

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PSYC 330 1st Edition Lecture 8Outline of Last Lecture I. Information on the process of diagnosing mental illnesses.II. DSM-V CharacteristicsIII. Various projective testsIV. Definition of reliability and validity and why they’re importantOutline of Current Lecture I. An introduction to anxiety disorders.Current LectureWhat is Anxiety?Commonly, a patient who believes themselves to be a experiencing an anxiety disorder will tell you their “nerves” are shot, or something of the like. But as a professional, a deeper understanding of what makes up true anxiety is needed.The Triple Reason System (Developed in 1968), is a good starting point. This system measures physiological, cognitive, and behavioral aspects of a person. For someone with anxiety, you would see symptoms like the ones on this chart.Physiological Cognitive BehavioralShortness of Breath “I can’t handle…” Decreased SleepSweaty Palms “I’m too overwhelmed…” FidgetyDilated Pupils Attention/Concentration IssuesWithdraw/AvoidanceMuscle Tension “I’m dying…” CryingDizziness “I’m losing control…” Decreased Eye ContactElevated Blood Pressure “Everything is falling in aroundme…”Substance AbuseThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.What Kind of Life Events Can Create Anxiety?- Relationships- Trauma- Occupational/Educational Stressors- Death/BirthSo How Can You Measure Anxiety?- The Holmes and Rahe Social Readjustment Scale is a 5-10 minute survey to take that measures how vulnerable you are to anxiety. The higher you score, the more vulnerable you are.Is Anxiety Always Harmful?- No, actually. Anxiety can be a very good motivator when in proper moderation. Think about it. If you weren’t worried about your grade, you wouldn’t do a paper or study for atest.- The Yerkes-Dodson Law states that you perform with a moderate level of anxiety on a daily basis. It also states basically that difficult tasks are performed better with low anxiety levels, and simple tasks are performed better with higher anxiety levels.Anxiety is Experienced Along a Contium of SeverityThis means that you can have varying degrees of anxiety.Significance of Mental Anxiety- It is the largest mental health problem in the U.S.- There are also comorbity rates with other mental health problems and medical heath issues.Fight/Flight Response- As you should already know, humans have a central nervous system (CNS) and a peripheral nervous system (PNS) There is a diagram in chapter 4 in your book that helps explain this.- The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in the PNS increases heart rate and respiration. This is what is activated in a panic or stress response.- The parasympathetic nervous system does the exact opposite. This is what brings your body back to normal after the threat or stress is dealt with.- In people with panic disorders, an excess of chemicals rush to the brain because of the SNS, and that’s why they have such a sudden attack of panic.Normal vs Abnormal Anxiety- As I said before, feeling anxious occasionally is completely normal.- It’s usually time limited and ends.- But if it’s effecting your functional impairment (as in, effecting your ability to live or do something), then the anxiety becomes abnormal.- When you are a child, you are expected to have many fears of somewhat silly things, like sharks or monsters or the like.- But as you age, you should see a decrease in both the number of anxieties you have as well as the types of fears you have.Socio-Demographic Factors- Women have 2-3 times the frequency of developing anxiety disorders than males. This could be misleading, since it’s possible factors such as self-reporting would possibly limit male participation. - But, both males and females who get diagnosed seek treatment in equal numbers.- Minority races such as African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics present with fewer cases of anxiety disorders than Caucasians.Prevalence- In a 12 month period, 18.1% of the adult population will have an anxiety disorder.- 22.8% of these cased (about 4.1% of the population) will be severe.- The average age of onset is early-around 11 years old.- Older adults (60+) have a markedly less chance of developing an anxiety disorder, with one exception. General Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in older adults have just as high if not slightly higher rates of development as other ages.Anxiety in Older Adults- There are overlaps of symptoms in younger and older adults with anxiety disorders.- For older adults as well as other ages, anxiety disorders are highly comorbid with depression.- Anxiety disorders are also highly comorbid with medical illnesses, and there are associations between anxiety disorders and cognitive decline in older adults.- Late age of onset is uncommon (over 60).- Both pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy have shown as effective treatments in older adults.Treatments/Services Usage- In a 12 month period of healthcare use, only 36.9% of people with anxiety disorders are receiving treatment.- Only 34.3% of that number (so 12.7% of the population) are receiving minimally adequate treatment.- The exception is people with panic disorders, and their numbers are slightly higher.- 59.1% of people with panic disorders receive treatment, and 24.3% of them get adequate treatment.- These numbers are far from acceptable, and there is obviously work to be


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