New version page

UGA WILD 3580 - Exam 1 Study Guide

Type: Study Guide
Pages: 15
Documents in this Course
Load more

This preview shows page 1-2-3-4-5 out of 15 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 15 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

BIOL 1108 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 – 13Lecture 1 (January 7)Introduction to Vertebrates I. Introduction to the Natural History of Vertebratesa. Vertebrate Natural History- behavior and function of organisms in their natural environmentII. Kingdomsa. Monera- bacteria and cyanobateriai. No nuclear membraneii. Unicellularb. Protista- protists i. Mostly unicellular ii. Have nuclear membranec. Plantae- plantsi. Multicellular ii. Cell wallsiii. Chlorophylld. Fungi- fungusi. Mostly multicellular ii. Cell wallsiii. Lack chlorophylle. Animalia- animalsi. Multicellularii. Without cell walls1. Phylum- Chordata (chordatesa. Dorsal hollow nerve tubeb. Notochord- support beneath spinal cord. Mostly in embryonic stagec. Pharyngeal slits- in the throat wall to breath or filter feedd. Postural tail III. 3 Subphylaa. Urochordatai. Tunicates or “sea squirts”b. Cephalochordatai. Lancelets or amphioxus c. Vertebratai. Chordates with a “backbone”1. Vertebral column- vertebrae distinct 2. Persistent notochord- no distinct vertebraeIV. Craniuma. “braincase of bone or cartilage”i. Living vertebrates- 57,000 in the worldii. Fish- 28,000iii. Amphibians- 5,500iv. Reptiles- 7,300v. Birds- 10,000vi. Mammals- 5,400Lesson 2 (January 9)Binomial NomenclatureI. Classificationa. Based on evolutionary relationshipsi. Taxonomy ii. Systematicsb. Taxonomy- the practice of describing biodiversity including naming speciesi. Common/ vernacular names ii. Problems1. Can vary from place to place or person to person2. Can vary with language3. Some aren’t species specifica. Similar species may have the same common nameb. Different species can have the same common name4. Small, rare organisms may have no common nameII. Binomial Nomenclaturea. Created by Linneausb. Binomen= noun + adjectivec. Latin or ancient Greek d. 1st noun- genuse. 2nd adjective- specific epithetf. Genus + specific epithet= scientific nameIII. Scientific Names a. Latin or Greek is used because they are “dead languages”b. Must be treated as a foreign word when written or printedi. In writing: underlineii. Print: italicsc. Genus must be capitalizedd. Cannot use a specific epithet without using the genus IV. Nomenclature rulesa. A genus can be used for only one group of speciesb. Within a specific genus, no specific epithet can be used more than oncec. All scientific names must observe the Law of Priority: the first valid scientific name given to an organism is the recognized namei. Synonym: a scientific name associated with a species but does not go by its recognized name V. Describing a new species a. Collect at least one voucher specimeni. Must be deposited in a nationally recognized museumii. Voucher specimens are representative specimens of a species Lesson 3 (January 12)Scientific NamesI. Describing and Naming a new species a. Collect voucher specimens i. Typed specimens- voucher specimens designed as the representative specimens for a new speciesii. Holotypes- single specimens iii. Syntypes- a series of specimens iv. Lectotype- representative type out of collectionv. Paratypes- additional specimens not used as syntypes vi. Neotypes- substitute specimenvii. Topotypes- specimens collected later b. Make sure it is new to sciencec. Write a detailed descriptioni. External measurements and morphologyii. Details about the locationiii. Details about behavior, habitat, distribution, ect.d. Name the speciesi. Etymology- the meaning of the namee. Publish the description and name II. Name change a. Splitting-what was once considered a single species is found to be more than onespecies b. Lumping- two or more species are combined into a single speciesc. Misclassifications- assigned to a different genusd. Law of priority III. Systematicsa. Classifying biological diversity in a manner consistent with phylogenetic relationshipsi. Linnaean classification: based on similarity and difference ii. Phylogenetic classification1. Class things based on phylogenetic relationships2. Cladistics: used shared, derived charactersa. Clades- group that has the same derived characters Lesson 4 - Term paper: don’t need to know for examLesson 5 (January 16)What is a species?I. Phylogenetic Classificationa. Based on common ancestry- share derived traits i. Secondarily derived traitsb. Cladogram of vertebrates II. Speciesa. Basic unit of classificationb. Biological species concept: (Mayr 1942) species are groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groupsi. Can reproduce viable and fertile offspring ii. Asexual species and hybrids do not fit into this definition III. Isolating mechanisms- any structural, physiological, behavioral, or geological barrier that prevents individuals of one population or species from successfully interbreeding with individuals of other populations or species 1. Ecogeographic isolation-allopatric ranges 2. Habitat isolation- sympatric ranges3. Seasonal isolation- different breeding seasons4. Behavioral isolation- different species specific displays to attract a mate 5. Mechanical isolation- morphological and anatomical differences tomake sexual union impossible 6. Gametic isolation- fertilization does not occur 7. Developmental isolation- embryo develops irregularly and dies 8. Hybrid Inviability- young produced from two different species often are weak or die young9. Hybrid Sterility- interspecific crosses produce healthy offspring butthey are not able to reproduce10. Decreased fitness- hybrids reproduce sterile offspring IV. Phylogenetic species concept a. A group of organisms that share a common ancestor i. Problem: at what level do we define the common ancestorV. Genetic species concepta. A group of interbreeding natural populations that are genetically isolated from other groups i. Problem: how genetically isolated is an individual or species VI. Taxonomy above the Species Levela. Genus- a taxonomic category containing a monophyletic group of species separated from other genera by a decided gapb. Species Genus c. Genera Family (-idae) d. Families Ordere. Orders Classf. Class Phylum g. Phyla KingdomVII. Trinomial Nomenclaturea. Includes a subspecific epithet b. Subspecies: a population of species that differs in some noticeable and constant way from other populations of that species i. Based on morphology ii. Local adaptation- evolutionary change based on habitat  diverge enough to new species Lesson 6 (January 21)Evolution and SpeciationI. Rules


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?