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CHM 101 1st Edition Lecture 9Lecture 7 OverviewI. Aqueous Reactions and Stoichiometry II. Properties of Aqueous SolutionsIII. Electrolyte Properties IV. Precipitation ReactionsV. Soluble and Insoluble Compounds VI. Full and Net Ionic EquationsLecture 8 I. Acids and BasesII. Neutralization ReactionsAcid – substance that produces hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in waterBase – a substance that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in waterThere are strong and weak acids and strong and weak bases- Strong Acids – dissociate completely when dissolved in water into H+ and anionso Example: HCl (g)  H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)o 7 strong acids Hydrochloric acid – HCl Hydrobromic acid – HBr Hydroiodic acid – HI Chloric acid – HClO3 Perchloric acid – HClO4 Nitric acid – HNO3 Sulfuric acid – H2SO4These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Strong Bases – fully dissociate into cations and OH- o Example: KOH (s)  K+ (aq) + OH- (aq)o Any soluble metal hydroxide is a strong base o Alkali metal hydroxides LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOHo Heavy alkaline earth metal hydroxides  Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2- Weak acids – only partially dissociate into H+ and anionso Example: CH3OOH (l)  CH3OOH- (aq) + H+ (aq)o HF is a weak acid- Weak bases – do not contain OH- ions but partially react with H2O to produce themo Example: Ammonia  NH3 (aq) + H2O (l)  NH4 (aq) + OH- (aq)Neutralization Reaction – an exchange reaction between an acid (H+) and a base (OH-) that produces H2OExample: HNO3 (aq) + KOH (aq)  H2O (l) + KNO3 (aq)Full ionic equation: H+ (aq) + NO3- (aq) + K+ (aq) + OH- (aq)  H2O (l) + K+ (aq) + NO3 (aq)Net ionic equationH+ (aq) + OH- (aq)  H2O (l)Acid-Base ReactionsFull ionic equationMg(OH)2 (s) + 2HCl (aq)  2H2O (l) + MgCl2 (aq)Net ionic equationMg(OH)2 (s) + 2H+ (aq)  2H2O (l) + Mg (aq)Carbonates React with Acid to Produce CO2CaCO3 + 2HCl (aq)  CaCl2 (aq) + H2CO3 (aq)H2CO3 (aq)  H2O (l) + CO2 (g)CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq)  CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2


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