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NAU PSY 101 - Biological and Psychology and Neuroscience

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PSY 101 1st Edition Lecture 7 Outline of Current Lecture  Biological and Psychology and Neuroscienceo Phineas Gageo Brain Damageo Broca’s “Tan”o Mosso’s Church Bells o Your selfish braino Structure o Complexity o Neurons o Neural Communicationo Communication Definition of synapse Definition of neurotransmitters Current Lecture Biological and Psychology and Neuroscienceo Phineas Gage Gage was a railroad foreman who had a tamping iron shoot through his skill Gage walked away from the accident seemingly intact  Profanity, irresponsibility, lying, and inability to plan for the future.o Brain Damage From Gage, we gained insight into the frontal lobes Inference from studies of those who experience brain damage.- Traumatic injury, stroke, lesion, disease, infection, etc. Your brain is the most complex thing in the known universe.o Broca’s “Tan” Around the same time that gage had his accident Left hemisphere behind frontal, in frontal of temporal  Unable to form words (produce language)  Paralysis on right side of body (next to motor)o Mosso’s Church BellsThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute. Angelo Mosso, an Italian physiologist had a patient who sustained a head injury Bells rang = brain pulsed - Asked questions with memories, or complex problems- Frontal lobe and blood flow to the brain that is active o Your selfish brain Avg. Weight =3 lbs.- 100 billion neurons, each linked to as many as 10,000 others. Brain tissue burns only pure glucose, with little capacity for reserves. Adults: 2% of body weight, but 20% of oxygen and glucose. At birth: 10% of body weight, 65% of energy o Structure  The brain is encased in a thick skull and 3 membranes- Dura matter- Arachnoid - Pia matter Cerebrospinal fluid (CFS)- Without CFS, the brain would collapse- Also used as a buffer and a cleaner Brain tissue has no pain receptors - Most brain surgeries are conducted with the patient felly alert. o Complexity  The complexity of our brain lies in the folds (gyril).- Largest brain = sperm whale (~ 20 pounds)- Largest encephalization quotient (EQ) = the shrew (10%) - Largest surface area to mass ratio = humanso Neurons  The nervous system is made up of neurons and glial cells.- Neurons are communicative; receive (and send) messenger from external sources and other neurons - Glial cells are multi-purpose Neuron Anatomy - Cell body - Dendrites - Axon/ terminals - Myelino Neural Communication Two types:- Afferent (sensory)- Efferent (motor) Luigi Galvani- Electrical stimulation of frog legs Cell “firing” is electric within the neuron - When a neuron receives enough excitation, it fires an action potential.- Travels from cell body down axon to terminal.o Communication Synapse: tiny gap between neurons  Comm. From neuron to neuron is chemical  Neurotransmitters: Chemicals involved in transmissions between cells - Can be excitatory or


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