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SIU REHB 205 - Neural Tube Defects, Cerebral Palsy, & Seizure disorders

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REHB 205 1st Edition Lecture 5I. Neural Tube Defectsa. incomplete development/partial coverings of:i. brainii. spinal cordb. anencephaly-i. born with underdeveloped brainc. encephalocele-i. born with hole in skull and the brain tissue is exposed d. Spina Bifida-i. Most commonii. Spinal tissue is exposed in the opening of the vertebrae iii. The tissue that protects the brain and spinal cord swellse. 3 types of tube defects by severity least server to mosti. Spina bifida1. Swellingii. Spina Bifida Meningocele-1. Meninges push though the spinal cord2. Spinal cord remains in tactiii. Spina bifida Myelomingocele-1. Total eruption of nerves though the back II. Epidemiologya. Incidencei. 1 per 2000ii. Happens 1500 times a year in the united statesb. Causesi. Enviromentalii. Geneticiii. Not fully known, it’s a combination of both environmental and genetics such as: family history in folic acid deficiency and tube defectsc. What it does to youi. Obstructs brain signals1. Pain, Muscle spasms and bodily functions are affectedIII. Manifestationsa. Paraplegia-i. Paralysis of lower extermitiesb. Hydrocephalus-i. Fluid buildup on the brain 1. due to swelling of spinal tissueThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.c. Scoliosis-i. Lateral S shaped curvature of the spine1. Spine curves to either side2. The spine is not straightd. Associated with learning disabilitiese. Limited height growthIV. Prevention and treatment-a. Primary preventioni. Scream mothers while their pregnant1. Do ultra sounds and blood tests2. Take folic acid vitamins prior to pregnancy and while pregnant3. Maintain a stable health 4. Maintain stable body heata. Avoid saunasb. Avoid ice bathsb. Utero surgeryi. Can be done to improve the spine1. Risks: premature deliveryc. Surgeryi. Meningocele-1. After 24-48 hours this surgery is done after birth to place the spinal cord in the right place and close the gapd. Treatmenti. Shunt to reduce hydrocephalus 1. 70%-90%2. Assistive technology3. Work with a team that has:a. Neurosurgeonb. Orthopedistc. Physical therapistd. Psychologiste. Social workersV. Cerebral Palsy-a. A condition that a person experiences chronic disabilities with the movement and their coordination due to damages to the brainb. Cerebral-i. In or of the brain c. Palsyi. Muscular weakness or muscle control problemd. Developmental disabilityVI. Epidemiologya. Not inheritedb. Not progressivec. Chronicd. 500,000-700,000 people living with it nowi. Mostly in lower socioeconomic groupsii. Maybe does not have newest technologyiii. Outdated informationiv. Outdated technologyVII. Causes of Cerebral Palsy-a. Birth injuryi. Compression of the skull ii. Ruptured blood vesselsiii. Mothers exposed to toxic substance while pregnant / breast feeding iv. Lack of oxygen in brainv. Umbilical cord wrapped around neckvi. Premature separation from the infant from the placenta VIII. Manifestations of cerebral palsya. Spasticity-i. Abnormal muscle tone results in stiffness and exaggerated muscle contractionb. Ataxia-i. Abnormal coordination and accuracy of muscle movementsc. Dyskinesia-i. Unwanted involuntary muscle movementsd. Atonia-i. Lack of muscle tone ii. Flaccidity in muscles e. Chorea-i. Jerky purposeless movementsf. Athetosis-i. Slows writhing movementsg. Chreoathetosisi. Combination of chorea and athetosisIX. Spastic vs Nonspastica. Spastici. Muscles continually contractii. Makes limbs stiff, ridgediii. Resistant to flexing or relaxingiv. Reflexes can be exaggerated, awkwardv. Often the arms and legs are affectedvi. Tongue, month, speech, eating, breathing, swallowing and pharynx can beaffectedvii. 70%-80% of cerebral palsy casesviii. People this this type of cerebral palsy are often tired b. Nonspastici. Decreased in muscle toneii. Involuntary movementiii. Movements can be slow or fastiv. Often repetitive and rhythmic v. 20% of cerebral palsy cases are non spastic X. Most common typesa. Spasticb. Athetoidi. Slow, writhing movementsii. Often repetitive and rhythmicc. Ataxici. Affects coordinated movements, balance, posture, gait, control of eye movements and depth perceptiond. Can have a mix of all 3 typesXI. Region of the body affecteda. Quadriplegiai. whole body affected expect the headb. Hemiplegiai. Half of the body affectedii. Either right or leftc. Diplegiai. Top or bottom part of body affectedXII. Accompanying conditionsa. Contractions-i. Limited range of motionb. Scoliosisi. Lateral curvature of the spinec. Seizuresi. Uncontrolled brain acitivtyd. Intellectual disabilityi. Usually from physical impairments, activity and participation restrictions e. Secondary conditionsi. From feeding, bladder, bowl, and difficulty breathing f. Decubitus soresi. Pressure or bed soresg. Dysarthriai. Difficulty speakingh. Easily fatiguedi. Due to spasticity XIII. Treatment a. No cureb. Symptom management i. Primary service is physical therapyii. Early identificationc. Assistive technology1. Ambulatory devices2. Speech devicesii. Acumination’s from inclusionXIV. Psycho social experiencea. People with congenital disabilities usually experience friendships that are limited or diminished b. Parents prone to be over protective or neglectful c. Issues with body image or sexual identity are common XV. Epilepsy/Seizure disordera. Seizure-i. Temporary loss of control over certain body functions1. Extrinsic-a. Systemic factors provokedi. Intoxication or withdraw from drugsii. Insulin shock and diabetic comaiii. Exposure to psycho active pharmaceuticalsiv. Malnutrition or hydrationv. If they have conditions like1. Meningitis2. Encephalitis3. Hypoxia2. Intrinsic-a. abnormal discharge from brain cellsi. epsilepsy-1. chronic condition of the nervous system in which there are recurrent unprovoked seizuresb. Causes of seizures-c. High feverd. Severe head injurye. Lack of oxygenf. Epilepsyi. Chronic condition of recurrent unprovoked seizuresg. Causes of epilepsyi. 7 out of 10 have no clear cause1. Examples of the 30% that might have a causea. Head injuriesb. Lack of oxygen during birth c. Brain tumorsd. Genetic conditionse. Lead poisoningf. Problems in development of the brain before birthg. Infections like meningitis XVI. Seizure Typesa. Generalizedi. Tonic/clonic1. Aura-a. Sensation indicating a seizure starts i. Examplesii. Strange tasteiii. Smelliv. Flashing light2. Tonic-a. Individuals go rigid and lose


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