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UI CHEM 1070 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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CHEM 1070 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 – 5Lecture 1 (January 22)A chemical world:- Everything is made of chemicals, EVERYTHING. Chemical free anything doesn’t exist. Chemistry is all about explaining what things are made of, their properties and how things change and interact with one another.- Theories and laws are often confused with one another. Laws summarize the result of a large number of observations while theories are models that explain and give the underlying cause for observations and laws. Observations involve measuring or observing some aspect of nature. Hypotheses are tentative interpretations of the observations.- Know the definitions of: Science, chemistry, chemical reactions and chemicals.Lecture 2 (January 27) Conservation of mass- In a chemical reaction matter is neither created nor destroyed. During physical and chemical changes the total amount of matter remains constant.States of Matter- Matter has 3 main states those include, Solid (s), Liquid (l), and Gas (g).- Solids: maintain their shape and volume, liquids maintain volume but not shape, and gasses don’t maintain either shape or volume.Mixtures vs. Compounds- Mixtures are elements combined but not chemically bonded to each other. A compound is elements chemically bonded together.- There are 2 different types of mixtures, homogeneous and heterogeneous. Homogeneous mixtures have a uniform composition throughout the whole mixture, while heterogeneous mixtures do not have a uniform distribution, instead they have sections or layers.Physical and Chemical Properties- These are just descriptions of things for example, physical properties are things you can see, change of start or conducting heat, etc. Chemical properties are things that change the composition of the compound or element.Lecture 3 (January 29)Significant figures- Know how to determine sig figs for multiplication and division and addition and subtraction equations- Know how to read the SI unit conversion tableLecture 4 (February 3)- Know how to read the prefix multiplier chart- Density equation Density= mass/volume- Units for density g/cm^3, g/mL- Energy has different forms: Kinetic, Potential, Electrical, Chemical, and Thermal- The units of energy are Joules (J) for heat. The other is, calories or the energy to raise 1 gof H2O by 1 degree Celsius- Changes in energy are classified as, Exergonic, Endergonic, Exothermic or Endothermic.- Temperature is a form of energy and it has 3 main types of measurements Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin.Lecture 5 (February 5) - Atomic Theory was composed by John Dalton in 1808- Three parts: First, Each element is composed of tiny indestructible particles called atoms. Second, All atoms of a given element have the same mass and other properties that distinguish them from the atoms of other elements. Finally, atoms combine in simple whole number ratios to form compounds.- Most of all atomic mass and positive charges are in the nucleus of an atom- Most of the volume is empty space with tiny negative electrons dispersed about- If an atom is neutral it means it has the same amount of positive charges in the nucleus as electrons floating about- The current accepted form of an atom is the Quantum Mechanical Model.- Protons: Mass(kg): 1.67262*10^-27, Mass(amu):1.0073, Charge: 1+- Neutron: Mass(kg): 1.67493*10^-27, Mass(amu):1.0087, Charge:0- Electron: Mass(kg): 0.00091*10^-27, Mass(amu):0.00055, Charge 1-- Opposite charges attract one another, like charges repel each other.- Mendeleev has 66 elements that he arranged into a table that became our first periodic table in 1869- Currently there are 91 natural elements and 20


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