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UVM BCOR 012 - Going from Non-life to Life via the protocell

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BCOR 12 1st Edition Lecture 9Outline of Last Lecture I. Microevolution and macroevolution connectionII. Major Characters used for Phylogenetic trees cont.III. Homology vs. AnalogyIV. Brief Lecture Review of Past LecturesV. Introduction to Chapter 25 – Cell TheoryOutline of Current Lecture I. Protocells and Life Form AbilitiesII. Geological Record of Earth’s HistoryIII. Some Key Event’s in Life’s HistoryIV. Photosynthesis & the Oxygen RevolutionV. Endosymbiont TheoryCurrent LectureProtocells SuccessMost successful Protocells:- Exploited their resources most efficiently- Passed on their abilities to future generationso NATURAL SELECTIONProtocell (abiotic) lead to the true cell (biotic)There is limited data on how the protocell became a true cell, but experiments are being done in the laboratory to determine how this occurred.There are three main differences between non-life and life forms and they are that ONLY life forms can:I. ReproduceII. Accurately replicate themselvesIII. MetabolizeGeological Record of Earth’s HistoryThe Earth’s history is separated into 3 eons:These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.I. Archaean (4.6 BYA – 2.5 BYA)II. Proterozoic (2.5 BYA – 542 MYA)III. Phanerozoic (542 MYA – Present)The Phanerozoic (the current eon) is split into three different eras:I. Paleozoic Era (542 MYA – 251 MYA)II. Mesozoic Era (251 MYA – 65.5 MYA)III. Cenozoic Era (65.5 MYA – Present)Boundaries between the eras correspond with major extinction ratesKey Event’s In Life’s HistoryI. The origin of the single-cell organismsII. The origin of multicellular organisms (shows life is becoming more complex)III. Colonization of land by plants and other organisms (lead to a huge diversification)- Stromatolites – layered rock that results from the activities of prokaryotes that bind thin film of sediment togethero Some Stromatolites are 3.5 billion years old, but are so complex it suggests that prokaryotes are much older than that- Prokaryotes were the sole inhabitants of Earth from 3.5 – 2.1 BYAPhotosynthesis and the Oxygen Revolution- Cyanobacteria – photosynthetic prokaryotes are the ancestors of chloroplasts and caused the increase of Oxygen in the atmosphere- The “Oxygen Revolution” occurred about 2 BYA and caused the extinction of many prokaryotes for they couldn’t survive in a world with so much oxygen- Some groups that survived adapted and started used cellular respiration to harvest energy- Cellular respiration – using oxygen to produce energy- ATP synthase – involved in photosynthesis and cellular respiration with the formation of energy molecules- Evidence strongly suggests that mitochondria and chloroplasts have prokaryotic ancestors due to their possession of their own genetic material (RNA), the ATP synthase gene, membrane and ribosomes. This is also known as the Endosymbiont


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