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ISU COMST 101 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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COMST 101 1st Edition Exam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 10Lecture 1 (January 14)The Communication TraditionWhat is Communication? Define Wiio's Law. How to achieve good communication?Communication:-Social action understood through peoplePrinciples of Communication:-We construct our own reality-Communication pervades all social life (language, symbols, nonverbal behavior)Wiio's Law:-Communication usually fails, except by accident-The more we communicate the worse communication succeedsGood Communication involves:-Setting, participants, message, channel, noise, and feedbackLecture 2 (January 16) What are the Canons of Rhetoric? History of Communication. What are the four types of modern period?Canons of Rhetoric:1. Invention: the topic and background2. Style: how the information is presented -Ethos -Pathos -Logos3. Arrangement: includes the introduction, states the purpose, lists arguments, ends with conclusion4. Memory: keep track of topic, style, and arrangement with mnemonics and acronyms5. Delivery: tone and volume of voice, nonverbal information presentedHistory of Communication:-Classical Period: finding truth-Medieval Renaissance Period: teach the word through writing and preaching-Modern Period: emphasis on free speechFour Types of Modern Period:1. Classical: adapting classical practice2. Psychological: link between communication and thought3. Belletristic: communication as art4. Elocutionary: improvement of presentationLecture 3 (January 21) What are the Idols of the cave? What are the Idols of the market? What are the Idols of the theater?Idols of the cave:-Stereotypes and personalities-Interpreting ambiguous information-Words don't mean things, people mean thingsIdols of the market:-The distortion of language -Example: yelling "fire!"Idols of the theater:-Accepting communication without thought-Using cues and heuristics based on authority (obeying superiors), linking (trusting people we like), and consensus (going along with the majority)Lecture 4 (January 23) How is the scientific method used in communication? How does communication shape our behavior?Use of scientific method:-Observation: direct vs. indirect communication-Description: labels of communication-Prediction: understanding limits of communication-Explanation: cause of communicationCommunication shaping behavior:-Thinking influences actions; we construct our own realityLecture 5 (January 26) Definitions, Models, and PerspectivesDefining communication, feedback models, and self-fulfilling prophecy. What are signs vs. symbols?Communication: transmission of information through the use of symbols-Varies in intent (fundamental attribution error: behavior of others understood through traits) and scope (self vs. others)-Concepts, ideas, and emotions conveyed through verbal and nonverbal cuesFeedback models: how communication is exchanged and altered between you and othersSelf fulfilling prophecy: false beliefs that come true via interactionSigns vs. Symbols:-Signs: show that something is there-Symbols: arbitrary representation of "thing" (name as a symbol)Lecture 6 (January 28) Models in communication. What are the perspectives of communication?Models: Abstract representation of a process used to organize thoughts, predict future, explain relationship between variables, and control variables-Halo effect: attraction= increased purchasing-Communication Studies Model vs. Freud's Model-Tested as necessary: Mendel's heredity theory and the existence of genes-No model is perfect, they are always incompletePerspectives of communication:1. Psychological: upstream, mental processes -Creating and improving communication, concerns with social context and the meeting of the minds2. Social Constructionist: downstream, cultural processes -Word building through mass communication-Communication connecting cultures through symbols, customs, traditions, and rules3. Pragmatic: interdependent behavior Lecture 7 (January 30) What was the famous experiment done by Clark and Hatfield? How are actions so imortant?Clark and Hatfield (1989)-People approach on campus by an attractive person of the opposite sex and asked to go on a date or to sleep with them. -Found that women are less likely to have casual sex; explained by the evolution theory (reproductive costs) and the social role theory (division of labor costs)Importance of actions: -Silence speaks louder than words-Ostracism and social exclusion affects self worth, the need to belong, aggression, and changes neural activityLecture 8 (February 2) Methods of DiscoveryScience in communication. What is scholarly research and what do the researchers do? Defining stereotype threat.Science: a systematic process for generating knowledge about the world-Intuition: common sense way of thinking using anecdotes based on real life (stereotypes and superstitions) that is influenced by biases-Authority: more persuasive than intuition, requires little thought and can lead to brainwashingScholarly Research: -Question oriented, methodological, replicable, self-critical and self-correcting cycleResearchers:1. Frame a research question by defining concepts conceptually and operationally2. Choose a method3. Collect data (insights, observations, measurements4. Interrupt data5. Make results publicStereotype threat: acting consistently with a common stereotype even if it is untrueLecture 9 (February 4) Importance of skepticism and defining epistemology? What are the goals of science? What is the third variable problem and the experimental method? Intuition and authority are important with paired with skepticismTwo current views of epistemology (a set of beliefs about science and knowledge):1. Logical Positivism: gain knowledge for own sake2. Humanistic: knowledge should serve peopleGoals of science:-Defining phenomena-Recording events: knowing what is linked to phenomena when not directly observable -Conceptual definition (abstract) vs. Operational definition (concrete, observable)-Relations among behaviors-Differences in behavior-Prediction: helps to understand things with limited information-Causality: covariation (prediction is not causal), temporal precedence (cause before effect), addressing alternative explanationsThird Variable Problem: the confounding variable that affects two other variablesExperimental method:


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