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UVM HST 96 - Fur Trade 2

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HST 096 1st Edition Lecture 7Outline of Last Lecture This lecture deals with the fur trade over the almost 500 years that it occurred. It touches on myths, practices, white and Indian interaction between both the French and English (including marriage and sexuality). Furthermore it deals with the timeline, and the events that led to the end of the fur trade.Outline of Current Lecture An analysis of the three assigned readings by White, Van Kirk, and Fancis/Morantz and notes from the readings. Marriage/intermarriage, trading, cultural adaptation are all topics within the lecture. This very much builds off of Tuesdays lectures.Current LecturePartners in Fur:- Combining systems of trade to allow for prosperity- English Hudson’s Bay Colony, takes place in 18th century- English must have competitive prices (more flexibility) - Required hunting on the Indian’s part- Indian way was good for business- Captain system (based around Indian thoughts)- Cultural accommodation (give and take)Middle Ground:- Pays d’en haut (land beyond huronia) (French and Algonquin) - Justice (accommodating to find justice/ changing behavior so that offense causes less trouble)- Intermarriage- technology- Indians used middle ground to increase leverageTender Ties:- Marriage- Marriage as economic tie- Ties though were of affectionThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Traders began to accept the marriage tradition of the Indians- Groom had to pay, and this went completely against dowry- Spiritualism not European religion- Middle ground of the nuptial world, flexibility- Indian ritual lacked that- Women could say no thoughCommonalities:- Intermarriage as an economic tool/ union of the two culture and bridge the gaps- Interdependence between the natives and the whites- Both sides bending to the traditions of each other- “middle ground” (new culture)- relative peace- minority of European power- metissage (mixing culture)Explanations:- Europeans need Indians for fur and source of food (land not settleable)- Entire region is lightly populated- Land not agriculture worthyReading notesThe middle ground, Richard White- paysd’en haut (land beyond huronia)- Iroquois wanted beaver land, and slaves as atonement or to refill ranks 1- Pushed Algonquin west- “Middle Ground” created between French and Indians so that culturally different societies could 50- “Middle ground depended on the inability of both sides to gain their ends through force.” 52- Algonquin were not familiar with royalty and superior over inferior. (57)- Fench falsity thinking this meant no social order their was social order (57)- Eventually the times natives would go to fortified European Forts vanished, and men had to go to the tribes with goods. This produced a need for protection or connection making(57)- The men who made these connections were viewed as dangerous to the French crown as they hadfound a freedom and no longer feel into the social order of the kingdom- This led to quarreling amongst the French society in the New World, the Indians made connections with different individuals- These non-traditional Frenchmen also struck at the heart of Algonquin society due to making the case that tradition was transferable and no innate to man of specific cultures.- Official beliefs of both sides did not truly delegate the attitudes held by the people.- The sex and freedom to have it made life easier, perhaps pushed more Frenchmen to bare the fur trade, also came from larger female population.- Jesuit push for Native women to join the Cult of Mary led to abstinence.o Such a push angered native youth and elderso Also angered French traders as connections would dry up, and access to sex diminished.- Increase in marriage as a way for unlicensed fur traders to make better connections and stay despite being forced out (Coureur de bois)- Intermarriage means to fortify ties with natives.- Violence was commonplace on the Western frontier as a means of both protecting goods and getting them- Theft became institutionalizedFrancis/Morantzo Indians not passive incapable individuals as portrayed, responsible in helping establish it(xi)o Fur trade shaped by the cultures of the new worldo Indians follow a European of trade captain ship, although this probably did not pass over in to normal society.(44) o Trade culture built into Indian culture where the Captain was a middleman, not the hunter.o Whole culture just around trading between Indians and the European companies. Separate though from European culture.(46)o Currency was beaver pelts, everything revolved around them.(47)o But these were not to societies merging, the English and Indians.o The Indians happily would play the French against the Indians and would do what was best for them, o Esquawino even made his own trade network angering the Hudson Bay Company’s traders (59) other Indians willing to patronize whichever side.o Infighting between Indians for loyal to one side or other (59)o Europeans had to quickly pick up the techniques of natives as they were unprepared upon their arrival in the Bay. (63)o Indians tried to stay independent of the Company (64)oVan Kirko 3 Only trade based around two distinctly different societies.o 4 marriage between fur traders and Indian women fundamental to growth of industryo 4A “Middle Ground” reached among those involved with trade and marriage marriage a la facon du payso White women symbolized the decline of the fur trade as they accompanied settling of the lando 6A new lifestyle opened to Indian women that was easier and more materialistic, mhile still allowing for the freedoms they had had before. o 7This would change though as traders began pushing patriarchal views on relationshipso 8Furthermore the coming of white women would lead to a racist view of the mulado children who were viewed as competition.o 9The fur trade became a co-dependency between the Whites and Indians.o 29 Indian girls also given as wives to allow special privileges and the like for Indianso Marriage a la facon du pays evolved from a complex social interaction between traders and the Indianso Man of Christian upbringing began to develop non Christian marriage for a multitude of reasonso Trouble often occurred due to traders failure to properly perform necessary actionsor behavioro Look the other way by Englisho French though were very


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