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UVM HST 10 - European Political transformation

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HST 10 1st Edition Lecture 7Outline of Last Lecture - Reforms of Catholic Church- Corruption in the church- Martin Luther- Beginning of ProtestantismOutline of Current Lecture - France and Louis XIV- Russia and the growth of an absolutist empire in Russia - Dutch Republic- England and Constitutional MonarchyCurrent LectureFrance and Louis XIV- Due to huge increase in military and expansion need for money increases- France begins to rely on mercantilism (protected and controlled)- This is all to boost revenue to the government- There were some who were not taxed (clergy and church, as well as nobility)- Louis could not get money from those with the most money, he needed other means of money gatheringRussia and the growth of an absolutist empire in Russia - From Muscovy to the Russian Empireo Very Mongolian with regards to behavioro Land locked so its Empire would be a land Empire- Muscovy had been principality of Golden Horde, people though were Orthodox and their own people.o Shift during the reign of Ivan iii (1462-1505) and Ivan IV or “the terrible” 1533-84These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.o Mantle of Roman Empire passed to Russia (daughter of last Byzantine ruler married to Ivan the Terrible)o Move from Grand Duke to Tsar (Caesar)o Russia begins to take power back from Mongoliao Ivan the IV weakens power of heredity nobility (boyars)o Russia begins to Push east and creates trans Eurasian empire (1639)o Peasantry forced into complete hereditary serfdom (1649) opposite to rest of Europe where more freedom giveno Russian peasantry lives in horrible conditions- New path starting with Peter the Great r. (1682-1725)o Wants more European style stateo Builds large armyo Wants control of Baltic Sea for trade accesso Fights Sweden in Great Northern War for access (1700-21)o Beats them and takes eastern Baltic as well as some of Finlando Builds a new Capital on Baltic called St. PetersburgConstitutionalist alternatives- Constitutionalismdefined as a system Dutch Republic- Low Countries a part of the Habsburg Empireo Engaged in trade with other parts of Europeo Very Industrializedo Spanish Habsburg wanted control of thiso Low Country people dislike this and want freedom of their trade- Habsburg efforts to repress Calvinism and control trade lead to the Dutch- This leads to Revolt and eighty year war that goes from 1566-1648o Times of cold war, truces, and hot war- Ended with treaty of Westphalia - Seven Northern Provinces , led by Holland from the Dutch Republico Continue fighting the Spanisho They create effective governorship by States General with leader as Stadholderso Dutch organize effect army and navy by figuring out how to finance them. This is possible due to the Dutch’s manufacturing and large trade networko During fighting with Spain they are setting up colonial power, which further finances their fighting of Spanish and create strong Merchant Marineo They fail with new Amsterdam, but very successful with Caribbean and Spice trade in East.o Also relatively tolerant of religion, unlike Spain’s highly intolerant view o Dutch economy flourished also because people were allowed to work, Religion was not viewed as importantEngland and Constitutional Monarchy- King or Queen have to rule under the direction of the English parliament.- King or Queen could rule on their own.- In 17th century though there is a transition to parliament having powero King Charles I tries to rule, disregarding Parliament r 1625-49o He had Divine righto Common law had existed though( individual property is yours)oo Common law was the rights of the people and this went against Divine righto But he could not control religion, and Parliament existedo Divine right was disregarded and got Charles in troubleo Civil War begins- RELIGION in Englando Fighting begins between Puritans, Calvinists, Independentso So there is fighting with former wanting king involved, latter do not.- King becoming involvedo Scottish rebel when king is involved with their Churcho Irish follow suit for similar reasono English grow angry and begin to fight under English Parliamento English Parliament and Scottish form an allianceo The King is captured and executed in 1649- English Republico Head of state is now dead, precedent set that leader can be judgedo England becomes a Republic for 11 yearso This is led by Oliver Cromwell (chief executive) and called Lord Protectoro Oliver Cromwell tries to unite all of Isles, slaughter many Irish- Restoration of the monarchy in 1660o Charles IIo Then James IIo But Monarchy again tries to take too much powero Leads to Glorious Revolution in 1688o Mary and William of Orange brought in to leado Needed to agree to rule as Constitutional monarchy and honor a bill of rightso Rule under the Parliamento With Influence of Netherlands, England begins to become a large Empire- The Act of Union (1707) unites England and Scotlando Great Britain


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