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UofL COMM 305 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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Comm 305 Exam # 1 Study Guide Chapters 1, 2, 13, & 14Chapter 1Mass Communication, Culture, and Media Literacy Introduction to mass communication, mass media, and the way it can impact us. Communication- The process of creating shared meaning -Noise- Anything that can interfere with the transmission of a message (can be physical or mental, internal or external) -Channel- the way a message is transmitted Mass Communication- Is the process of creating shared meaning be-tween the mass media and their audiences. What is Culture? The world made meaningful; socially constructed and maintained through communication, it limits as well as liberates us, differentiates as well as unites us, defines our realities and thereby shapes the ways we think, feel, and act. Social Construction?Theory of for explaining how cultures construct and maintain their realities using signs and symbols; argues that people learn to behave in their social world social interaction with it. Liberating effects of culture?Culture’s limiting effects can be negative issues of co-cultures Our stories help define our culture Technology’s role in mass communication technological determinism- the idea that machines and their development drive economic and cultural change.literacyPrinting press is what really opened the doors to mass commu-nication spread of literacy and rise in democracyindustrial revolution created leisure time, people had money to spend, and people wanted to spend that money on entertainment Awareness of Impact- Enjoy, understand, appreciate literacyDevelopment of production skills Genre conventionsGenre- a form of media content with a standardized, distinctive style and conventions. conventions- in media content, certain distinctions, standardized style elements of individual genres. production values- media content’s internal language and grammar into media content. Chapter 2platform agnostic- having no preference in where media content is accessed. Industries in Transition “Rules”of media consumption have changedMedia consumption is at an all time high Media Multitasking- simultaneously consuming many different kinds of media. Concentration of Ownership- ownership of different and numerous media companies concentrated in fewer and fewer hands. Conglomeration- the increase in the ownership of media outlets by non media companies. Globalization- ownership of media companies by multinational corporationsAudience Fragmentation-audiences for specific media content becoming smaller and increasingly ho-mogenous. Hypercommercialism- increasing the amount of advertising and mixing commercial and non commercial media content. Product placement- the integration, for a fee, of specific branded products into media con-tent. brand entertainment- when commercials are part of and essential to a piece of media content. payola-payment made by recording companies to DJs to air their records. additional ways to combine content and commercials Convergence is fueled by digitalization, connectivity, and advances in technology. Synergy-the use by media conglomerates of as many channels of delivery as possible for similar content. The Process on Mass Communication The content producer- the person or group sending the messageThe message-the content being sent The audience-the person or group receiving/decoding the message Chapter 13 Third Person EffectGenerally people underestimate the media’s effect on themselves, but overestimates the effect of media on others. The Effects DebateArgument- 1. is that media had limited impact on audiences because people know it isn't real. 2. Media content has limited impact on audiences because it is only for entertainment. 3. Media holds a mirror to society. 4. Media reinforce beliefs and values. 5. Media affects unimportant things in out lives.Counterargument - 1. children take in the media through the “early window” and the news is never “make-believe”. 2. The news is real. 3. Some things on TV are over dramatized. 4. Traditional ways of gaining values and beliefs have lost their power. 5. The things that some consider “unimportant” can be important to others. Microlevel vs. Macrolevel- we have to look at our larger society, rather than just individuals.Administrative vs. Critical research- immediate, observable influence of media, vs. asking larger ques-tions of culture. Transmissional vs. ritual perspective-transmissional- The media send out messages that control us or they do not ritual- media serves to maintain society Mass Communication Theory Explanations and predictions of social phenomena that attempt to relate mass communication to various aspects of our personal and cultural lives or social systems. We borrow what we need from sociology. Uses and gratifications approach-the idea that media don't do things to people; people do things with media Agenda Setting- the theory that media may not tell us what to think but do tell us what to think about it. Social cognitive theory- idea that people learn through observation Frankfurt school-media theory, centered in neo-marxism that valued serious art, viewing its consump-tion as a means to evaluate all people toward a better life; typical media fare was seen as pacifying ordi-nary people while repressing them. News Production Research-the study of how economic and other influences on the way news is pro-duced distort and bias news coverage toward those in power. Symbolic Interaction- the idea that people give meaning to symbols and then those symbols control peo-ple’s behavior in their presence. Cultivation Analysis-idea that television “cultivates” or constructs a reality of the world that, although possibly inaccurate, becomes the accepted reality simply because we as a culture believe it to be the re-ality. Mean World Syndrome- TV can lead to greater apprehension, mistrust, & insecurity about the real worldScientific evidence links media portrayals of alcohol consumption to youthful drinking and alcohol abuseMinorities are continually underrepresented in mediaChapter 14Ethics- rules of behavior or moral principles that guide actions in given situationsDemocracy Libertarianism-Philosophy of the press that asserts that good and rational people can tell right from wrong if presented with full and free access to information; therefore, censorship is unnecessary. The free flow or trade of ideasThe truth emerges from public disclosure1st Amendment Congress should make no law representing an establishment


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