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MSU ANTY 101D - Origins of Human

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Origins of Human RacesArchaeological EvidenceBefore RaceOrigins of Race ConceptLassiter Ch. 1ANTY 101 1st Edition Lecture 9Origins of Human Races Biology & Language Archaeological Evidence-The Modern Human species is only 200,000 years old • Genetic evidence also proves this-Never been completely isolated -Y-Chromosome Genetics also Mitochondrial DNA • Passed on, no adaptive benefits with different forms of it • Oldest people come from subsaharan Africa • very old DNA in Andaman Islanders & Australian Aborigines • Hadza & !Kung Peoples-Forgers in Eastern and Souther Africa; ancient but distinct click languages Ancient mtDNABefore Race -Lineages & Languages• Ethnocentrism is built into our languages. What people call themselves always means “The real people” -Barbarians1-Great Chain of Being (1500s) ———>• Invented by Europeans• God at very top• Hell is at the very bottom • European divide human societies based on religion• 1400s and 1500s Age of Exploration-Prior to 1400s, race=lineage -New ideas about categorical differences Origins of Race Concept-Portuguese in Africa and Spanish in Americas-Indentured servants v. slaves • Indentured servants fill duties once they reach america and then they're freed-Morality and justification-Roman slaves • slave due to socioeconomic consequences not biology• Could be freed• Societies with salves v. slave societies-Carolus Linneaus Systema Naturae 10th ed. (1758)• Binomial Nomenclature in Latin; various human races2-Homo sapiens -Thomas Jefferson • Notes of the State of Virginia (1781)• inherent inferiority, separate natural origins or divergence, resolves contradictions ofslavery and Declaration of Independence-All men are created equal Lassiter Ch. 1-Social Evolution v. Social Darwinism• Progess v. Fitness• Capable of civilization v. weeding out• Social Darwinism survival of the fittest -1900s Americans: Racial thinking• Race predicts biology, behavior, mental capacity, individual ability • Birth of a Nation, 1915 feature length silent film -Ku Klux Klan necessary to keep order in the south • Immigrants, ‘Racial Science’ & Eugenics-“Race was imported into science from social practice”• Scientists: 1) Are all races fully human? 2) Are all human races equal?• Intelligence and Craniometry -Franz Boas: Father of American Anthropology3• Historical Particularism & Cultural Relativity • Dissociated Biology from Culture-creates new definition of culture! Impact on race science.


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