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# UA ATMO 336 - Water in the Atmosphere

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ATMO 336 1st Edition Lecture 9Outline of Last Lecture II. Pressure pattern on upper air weather chartsa. Using pressure gradientb. Pressure gradient forcec. Coriolis effect (define)III. Upper air weather chartsa. Wind directions are 90 degrees to the pressure gradient force (see diagram)IV. Surface (or sea level) weather chartsa. Wind direction 60 degrees from pressure gradient forceb. See diagramsc. Rising air= clouds and precipitationd. Sinking air= fair weatherV. Crash course in cyclogenesis (along polar fronts)a. Defining cyclogenesis (cyclones)b. Defining air massc. Defining weather frontVI. Polar jet streama. Defining the polar jet streamb. Direction in which it flows (see diagram)Outline of Current Lecture VII. Internal energya. Going from lower higher energy, or vise versa by adding or removing energyVIII. Water vapor’s importance in atmospherea. Largest contributer to greenhouse effectIX. Phase changes of watera. Defining latent heatb. Defining sensible heatc. Defining units of a caloried. Rate of evaporatione. Rate of condensationf. Energy absorption vs. energy releasei. Phase change between liquid and gas= most importantX. The water cyclea. Steps in the cycleCurrent LectureThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Internal energy= energy associated with the random disordered motion of moleculeso To go from lower energy to higher energy phase, you need to ADD energy to the watero To go from a higher energy to a lower energy phase, you need to REMOVE energy from water- Water vapor important for atmosphereo Transforms into both liquid and solid cloud particles that grow and fall to earth as precipitationo Latent heat= when water vapor condenses in the formation of clouds which brings large amounts of heat that is released into the atmosphere Source of energy for development of thunderstorms and hurricaneso Water vapor absorbs infrared radiation= important gas in earth’s heat-energy balance. LARGEST CONTRIBUTER TO GREENHOUSE EFFECT- Phase changes of watero Latent heat= energy that must be added to or removed from water as it changes phases Does not cause the temp of water to change, only the phase!o Sensible heat= energy which is used to change the measure temperature of a substance,but not phase.o Calorie= physical unit for measuring energy Amount of energy required to raise the temperature or one gram of liquid waterby 1 degree Celsiuso Rate of evaporation= number of water molecules that change phase from liquid to gas each second. Depends mainly on the temperature of the liquid surface; the higher the temp, the faster the rate of evaporationo Rate of condensation= number of water molecules that change phase from gas to liquid each second. Depends mainly on the vapor pressure (or concentration of water vapor molecules) above the liquid surface;  The higher the vapor pressure, the faster the rate of condensationo Energy absorption causes the water molecules to change their bonding pattern and transform to a higher energy state. Melting, evaporation, and sublimationo Energy release allows water molecules to change there bonding pattern and transform into a lower energy state Condensation, freezing, and depositiono Phase changes between liquid and gas= MOST IMPORTANT Due to the large amount of latent heat that is involved Evaporation of water results in cooling of the surrounding environment  Condensation of water results in warming of the surrounding environment- Water cycleo Phase changes between liquid, gas (water vapor) and solid (ice)o Energy from sun drives the cycleo Steps: Liquid water evaporated from oceans and land surface (soils and transpired fromplants)= both processes called evapotraspiration- EVAPORATION=DOMINANT PROCESS ON EARTHS SURFACE (removes energy) Rising air currents carry water vapor up into atm.= cools air causing condensation into liquid water (or ice crystals)= clouds (releases energy) Cloud droplets grow large= precipitation (rain)- Much water collects into oceans, groundwater, or ice Cycle

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