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BGSU BIOL 2050 - Introduction to Macromolecules

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BIOL 2050 1nd Edition Lecture 7 Outline of Last Lecture I. Chemical Groupsa. Functional Groupsb. ATPOutline of Current Lecture II. Macromoleculesa. PolymersIII. Carbohydratesa. Sugarsb. StarchIV. Lipidsa. Fatsb. Phospholipidsc. SteroidsCurrent LectureMacromolecules: large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms.-Molecular structure and function are inseparableI. Polymers: long molecule consisting of many similar building blocksa. Carbohydratesb. Proteinsc. Nucleic AcidsDehydration Reaction: occurs when two monomers bond togetherthrough loss of a water moleculeHydrolysis: removal of a water molecule that disassembles two monomers.Diversity-each cell has thousands of different macromolecules-macromolecules vary between organismsCarbohydrates-Include sugars and the polymers of sugars-Monosacchrides: single sugars (simplest carbohydrates)These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.-Polysaccharides: macromolecules composed of many sugar building blocks.II. Sugarsa. CH2O multiplesb. Most common is Glucosec. Monosacchridesi. Differ in location of carbonyl groupii. Number of carbons in the carbon skeletond. Disaccharide: dehydration reaction joins two monosacchridesi. Joined by glycosidic linkagee. Polysaccharides: polymers of sugars, have storage and structural rolesIII. Starcha. Storage polysaccharide of plantsb. Store in chloroplasts and other plastidsc. Amylose: simplest formd. Glycogen: storage polysaccharide in animalsi. Stored in liver and muscle cellse. Cellulose: major component in the cell walls in plant cellsi. Polymer of glucoseii. Structuraliii. Alpha: helicaliv. Beta: straight and forms microfibrilv. Passes through humans as fiberf. Chitini. Outer skeleton of insectsLipids- Large biological molecules that do not form polymers- Hydrophobic- Mostly hydrocarbonsIV. Fats: constructed from two types of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acidsa. Ester linkage forms bondb. Triacylglycerol: three fatty acids are joined to glycerol by an ester linkagec. Saturated Fats: have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible and no double bondsi. Solid at room temperature (butter)ii. Unhealthierd. Unsaturated Fats: have one or more double bondsi. Liquid at room temperature (Olive Oil)ii. Healthier optione. Trans Fats: may contribute more than saturated fats to cardiovascular diseasef. Purposei. Energy storage in adipose cellsii. Cushions vital organs and insulationV. Phospholipid: two fatty acids and a phosphate group are attached to glycerol.a. Cell membrane: phospholipid bilayerVI. Steroids: lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fusedringsa. Cholesterol: important steroid in animal cell membranesi. High levels in the blood may contribute to cardiovascular


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