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UMSL MGMT 3600 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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Management 3600 Exam # 1 Study Guide Chapter 1-4 Chapter 1Introduction to the Field of Organizational Behavior Organizational Behavior- study of what people do, feel and thinkWhat is the four perspectives of Organizational Effectiveness and when do you need to consider all four:Open systems perspectiveOrganizational learning perspectiveHigh performance work perspective And stakeholder perspectiveYou need to consider all four perspectives when assessing an organizations effectiveness.Surface level diversity vs deep level diversity:Surface level diversity are differences in race, ethnicity, sex etc. and deep level diversity is the difference in beliefs, values and or attitude.Globalization:Way we are connected throughout the worldAnchors of Organizational Behavior:Systematic research: making decisions based on researchMultidisciplinary: knowledge from other areas of studyContingency: situation basedMultiple levels: individual, team and organizationHuman capital vs intellectual capitalIntellectual is the knowledge that a company has (which includes human capital) and human capital is the knowledge that a human has. Chapter 2: Individual Behavior, Personality and ValuesBeliefs: values systemValues: level of importance in things you believe in. Values motivate us (values and beliefs often conflict with each other)Schwartz’s values model:Openness to change and Conservation (tend to conflict)Self-enhancement and self-transcendence (tend to conflict)Values congruence- creates stressful situation. When congruence is maximized the result is the best.Moral intensity- how important it is to be ethicalMoral sensitivity- recognize how important ethical situations can beSituational influence- pressure to do somethingHow to encourage ethical standards:Set ethics code, inform employees of ethical code, communicate wrong doing and set upleaders to show ethical behavior.Collectivism- people value group membership and harmony (US is low on)Individualism- “all about me” (US is high)Power distance- status level who makes decisions MARS M=MotivationA=AbilityR=Role perceptionS=Situational FactorsNature vs. NurtureNature: hereditary Nurture: how you were raisedJungian Personality theory:How we tend to respond to external stimuli and is heavily used in business to help understand their self awareness.Chapter 3: Perceiving Ourselves and Others in OrganizationsComplexity, Consistency and Clarity: Consistency: like being pressured into going into a certain job fieldClarity: where you understand yourselfComplexity: have multiple self viewsHow we perceive ourselves effects how we think others should be. When we interpret information influenced by self concept, we compare what we already know.Selective attention: what people want to pay attention to. A way to get attention of consumersConfirmation bias: screening out anything that goes against your beliefs.Mental Models: how you think someone should behave. Which when you fill in missing pieces, can help you predict events but it may block new perspectives and new opportunities that couldarise, however, the more information that is missing, the more likely you are to make mistakes. If we rely to heavily on mental model is prevents us from thinking outside the box.Categorization process, homogenization process and differentiation process: Categorization is when you categorize people into groupsHomogenization process is when you assign similar traits to people within a group Differentiation process is when you assign less favorable traits to other groups.-When we do these, it makes us feel better by putting down another group= self enhancement.-Problems? We tend to over generalize. Chapter 4: Workplace, Emotions, Attitudes, and StressEVLN model: has to do with job satisfaction E= exit situation (transfer, quit)V= voice (opinions)L= loyalty (wait it out)N=neglect (reduce work quality- absenteeism)Performance and satisfaction go hand in hand. The happier that you are, theoretically the more productive you are.Service profit chain model: when you are happy at work - you want to stay – you tend to have positive behavior – service quality goes up – customer satisfaction goes up – and thus so does workplace loyalty.Affective commitment vs. continuance commitmentaffective commitment is ideal because you are less likely to quit. It has a lower turnover rate and you have more of an emotional attachment to your workplace. Continuance commitment you only stay because you feel like you are stuck or you feel like you would lose too much money by leaving.How to maximize affective commitment: increase shared values, trust between employee and organization, organization comprehension (or how much you know about the organization) and employee involvement (or the feeling of being apart of something great)Stress- is a perceived situation that is challenging or threatening. Eustress vs. distress; Eustress is what motivates you, what gets you up in the morning to accomplish goals for the dayDistress can cause you to get nothing done, to stay in bed all day long. General adaptation syndrome: Stage 1 Alarm stage (where you perceive stress) Stage 2 Resistance stage (“I can do this stage”) and Stage 3 Exhaustion stage.Managing work-related stress: remove stress, withdraw from stress, change your perceptions and receive social support.Emotions vs. attitudes: emotions occur without our knowledge. We evaluate our emotions (good/bad). Based on experience, short lived. Affect how we perceive things, we tend to remember events more clearly if they are tied to emotions. Attitudes are made up of feelings, beliefs and behavioral interactions. Attitudes are stable for longer periods of time. Cognitive Dissonance vs. Emotional Dissonance:Cognitive Dissonance is an emotional experience caused when our emotions and attitudes are not in agreement. We tend to be motivated to get rid of cognitive dissonance. Emotional Dissonance is a conflict between true and required emotions which tend to be stressful. “put your game face on” then act with required emotions. Emotional labor: usually an issue when working in teams or in service industry. Not wanting to deal with a problem customer. Can be very stressful and varies from country to country. Model of Emotional Intelligence:1st step: knowing how we feel2nd step: recognize our emotions3rd step: recognize other emotions in other people4th managing and regulating other emotions. this is learned as you get older, they are not


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