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UMass Amherst PSYCH 100 - Nature V. Nuture

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Psyc 100 1st Edition Lecture 6 Outline of Last Lecture I. Neuronsa. CommunicationII. NeurotransmittersIII. Drugsa. Effect on neural communicationIV. Types of NeuronsV. Central Nervous Systema. Spinal Cordb. Braini. Structure and functionii. Localization of functioniii. Hemispheric DifferenceVI. NeuroimagingOutline of Current Lecture I. Nature V. Nurturea. Genesb. ExperienceII. The Role of GenesIII. Evolutionary Psychologya. Why are people so similar?b. Gender Differences in Reproductive Behaviorc. Explanation behind findingsIV. Problems with Evolutionary PsychologyV. Behavioral Geneticsa. Twins Studiesi. Raised Togetherii. Raised apartCurrent LectureThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.NATURE V. NUTURENATURE (GENES) – on behavior1. Evolutionary psychology – we are the same2. Behavior Genetics – we are differentGENDER - differences1. How much nature vs. how much nurtureNURTURE (EXPERIENCE) – on behavior1. Early environment2. Parents3. Peers4. CultureTHE ROLE OF GENESDo Genes Influence our behavior?Some examples: Thumb bending Hand clasping Tongue calisthenicsEVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGYWhy are people so similar?What is it?-Explain human behavior/traits by examining the long term reproductive dis/advantages of said traits and behaviors Any TWO humans will have ½% genetic variation (99.5% similarity)Key Questions:1. People appear really different. Why, then, does the human genome display so little variability?2. Why do we have so much in common?3. Do we see different patterns based on different environmental pressures?4. If this is true, then shouldn’t we observe differences in people related to the different evolutionary pressures they face?EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGYGender Differences in Reproductive BehaviorFact: Men and women differ in their willingness to engage in sexual activity.Men are less concerned about: Having multiple partners Knowing their partner really well Their partner’s level of commitmentEvidence: - Male college students are more likely to think it’s OK to sleep with a stranger 50% of college males say “yes” when propositioned by a stranger, almost 0% of women do.- Men are more quick to interpret “attention” as sexual intentHow does Evolutionary Psych. explain those findings?1. Women have way fewer opportunities to bear offspring. Need to be picky in choosing a mate Wealth, status and power will protect the child, promotes her genes2. Men can have a thousand kids if they wanted to. If one partner turns out bad, lots of other opportunities. Want to have as many kids as possible to promote his genes. Wants to find really fertile women (young, attractive).PROBLEMS WITH EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY1. Data are correlational-Correlation doesn’t prove causation2. “Just so” stories and backward reasoning-Could argue opposite behavior if true.3. There are variations in human behavior-Women are less likely and more likely to have casual sex, same with men.BEHAVIOR GENETICSWhy are people so DIFFERENT?What is it?-An approach to understanding the extent to which behavior/trait difference can be attributed to genetic differences.Key ways behavior geneticists do this:1. Twin studies (reared together)2. Separated at birth studies3. Adoption studiesBEHAVIOR GENETICSTWIN STUDIES (raised together):How is this done:Researchers compare the similarities between:Identical twins - Share 100% of the same genesVs.Fraternal twins – Genetic similarity of siblings…reared togetherGeneral Findings:-Identical twins are much more similar to each other than fraternal twinsPossible problems…1. Are identical twins raised more similarly than fraternal twins (e.g. same environment)? BEHAVIOR GENETICSTWIN STUDIES (raised apart):How is this done:Researchers compare the similarities between:Identical twins raised apart.General Findings:-Identical twins raised in separate homes are remarkably similar to each other.Possible Problems:1. Is the data


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