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BIOL 200B 1st Edition Lecture 7Chapter 34 ProtostomesI. AnimalsII. LophotrochozoaIII. EcdysozoaIV. Protostome Body PlanV. Groups of Lophotr.VI. Groups of Ecdys.VII. Adaptationsa. Motionb. Feedingc. ReproductionChapter 35 DeuterostomesI. DeuterostomesII. ChordatesIII. Origin of JawsIV. Origin of limbs and tetrapodsV. Amniotic eggs and mammalian placentaVI. Feathers and FlightVII. MammalsDeuterostomesDeuterostome includes vertebrates (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals); all other deuterostome phyla are invertebrates.- Anus develops from blastopore- VertebratesEchidnoderms- 100% marine- Synapomorphieso Endoskeletono Radial symm.o Water vascular systemThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Chordates1. Pharyngealslitsa. Suspension feeding usin siphons2. Dorsal hollow, nerve corda. Spinal cord in vertebrates3. Notochorda. Functions as endoskeleton4. Muscular post-anal tailTraits:- Vertebrae- Cranium- 3 part brain:1. Forebrain – smell2. Midbrain – vision 3. Hindbrain – balance/hearing Origin of Jaws- Evolved from anterior-most gill archo Similar cartilaginous morphologyo Both structures have same embryonic origin and derived from neural crest cells - Gnathostomes – Vertebrates with jaws (except hagfish and lampreys)Origin of Limbs and Tetrapods (lung fish are closest living relative to tetrapods)- Finbony finlimbs- Fins supported by bones – capable of walking short distances- Negotiate between swampy, low oxygen in water, and wooded floodplainso Variety of modern bony fish - Tetrapod adaptations were used by animalsboth amphibiously an underwater- Limb Evolution: Hox genes – regulate development in embryosTetrapodsAmphibia:- Terrestrial mostly but tied to water or moist environment for reproductionAmniotes:- Reptiles, birds, mammals- Can reproduce on land- Amniotic eggso Reptile, birds, egg-laying(oviparious) mammals lay amniotic eggso Shell encloses amnion, yolk, chorion, albumen- Mammalian Placentao Viviparity (live-bearing)o Offspring more protected, develop at more constant rateFeathers and Flight - Form and function: hollow bones- Feathers – projections from skin- Insulation, sexual selection- Powered flight evolved independently in birds, pterosaurs, and bats- Birds part of monophyletic group of dinosaursMammals: monophyletic class- Monotremata- Marsupial- EutheriaCharacteristics1. Hair/fur2. Endothermy3. Mammillary glands for lactationMonotremes – most extant mammalsPrimates – one mammalian order, includes humansTraits: large brains, thumbs, forward vision, socialHominids – humans and our fossil


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