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UH HRMA 1345 - Bacteria

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Hrma 1345 Lecture 4 Outline of Last Lecture I. Factors that affect the growth of foodborne pathogens (FAT TOM) characteristics of TCS foodsA. Definition of microorganismsB. Definition of pathogens C. Pathogens vs. spoiled microorganismsII. Major foodborne pathogens and their sources; resulting illnesses and their symptomsD. Types of pathogensE. How contamination occursF. Symptoms of foodborne illnessOutline of Current Lecture III. BacteriaG. The big fiveH. General Information about bacteriaIV. What bacteria need to growI. F.A.T.T.O.M.V. Bacteria GrowthJ. Phases and stage of bacterial growthVI. SporesK. Function of a sporeCurrent LectureIII. G.- Shigella spp.- Salmonella Typhi- Enteroherrhagic and shiga toxin-producing E.coli- Hepatitis AThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- NorovirusH. Bacteria are single celled, living microorganisms that can spoil food and cause foodborne illness.Location- bacteria can be found almost everywhereDetection- bacteria cannot be seen, smelled or tastedGrowth- if conditions are correct, bacteria will grow in rapid numbersToxin Production- some bacteria produce toxins in food as they grow and die. Cooking does not destroy these toxinsPrevention- the most important way to prevent bacteria from causing foodborne illness is to control time and temperatureIV. I.- Food: microorganism needs nutrients, specifically proteins and carbohydrates- Acidity: bacteria grow best in food that contains little or no acid pH is the measure of acidity A pH of 7 is neutral- Temperature: bacteria grow well between 41 and 135 degrees Fahrenheit This is the DANGER ZONE Danger zone is similar to body temperature Refrigerated temperatures may only slow their growth- Time: bacteria need time to grow The more time bacteria spend in the temperature danger zone, the more opportunity they have to grow to unsafe levels- Oxygen: some bacteria need oxygen to grow while others grow when oxygen is not there Bacteria that grow without oxygen can occur in:o Cooked riceo Untreated garlic-and-oil mixtureso Most microorganisms that cause foodborne illness are facultative which means they can grow with or without oxygen- Moisture: most bacteria grow well in moist food The amount of moisture in a food is called its water activity Methods for reducing moistureo Sugaro Salto DehydrationV.J. - Lag phase: their numbers are stable and are preparing for growth- Log phase: bacteria can double approximately every 20 minutes- Stationary phase: when bacteria have increased to such large numbers that they compete for space and nourishment some may start to die- Death stage: when the number of bacteria dying exceeds the number growingVI.K. A spore serves as a protection when the environment is too hot, cold, dry, acidic or when there is not enough food- When conditions are right, it can become a vegetative cell again- Spores do not reproduce- You can prevent this by storing food at the correct


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