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MU COM 259 - Internal Relations

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COM 259 1st Edition Lecture 1Historical Origins of Public Relations I. Ancient Beginnings A. King’s spies in India.B. 1800 BC-farm bulletin in IraqC. Romans “voxpopuli, vox Dei.”D. Machiavelli’s “Discoursi” –people must be caressed or annihilatedE. 1600’s Propaganda=Catholic Church’s “Congregatio de Propaganda Fide”II. American Beginnings A. American Revolution- trade vs. farmer-Hamilton vs. JeffersonB. Raising funds and promoting causes1. 1641- “begging mission” for Harvard2. “New England’s First Fruits”-1643-first brochureIII. Sam Adams A. organization to implement actions of public relations campaigns1. symbols2. slogans3. staged events4. getting your story to the public first IV. Modern Practice A. “Common Sense”- greatest PR act of the revolution1. three editions and nearly 100,000 copies by the RevolutionB. Swaying early adopters-Sam Adams and “The Committees of Correspondence”C. The White Paper- “Common Sense”D. The Product Launch Press ReleaseE. Letters to the Editor-The Federalist Papers1. 85 letters to the editor by Hamilton, Madison and Jay-first national political campaignV. Promoting Growth and Change A. Late 1820’s- President Andrew Jackson and Amos Kendall1. Kitchen Cabinet2. Bank of the US and Nicholas Biddlea) First business use of public relationsb) Loans to papers and ads-quieting criticsc) The Bank Warsd) Davey Crockette) Matthew St. Clair Clarke-Biddle’sf) publicistVI. Origins A. P.T. Barnum1. Invented the word “jumbo”2. Publicist was Tody HamiltonB. 1850’s Railroad publicists1. Charles Lowell-Burlington RR publicists-must not only build a RR west, but find a population and build up businessVII. Rise of Corporate PR A. 1875-1900-rise of monopoliesB. 1889-George Westinghouse develops first corporate PR department1. Battle of the Currents with2. Edison’s scare campaignC. 1884-AMA to combat the antivivisectionistsVIII. PR developmentA. Seedbed Era1. Muckracking journalistsa) Upton Sinclair, Ida Tarbell-use of magazines and wire services2. 50 magazines with circulation of 100,000 and in 1900 “Ladies Home Journal” had close to 1 million3. Business response was via lawyers and ads4. Early PR firms a) The Publicity Bureau-1900(1) first client was Harvard University(2) first fixed-fee plus expenses arrangement…also operated secretly with the railroadsb) Smith and Walmer – 1902 in D.C(1) by William Wolff Smith-reporter for Cincinnati Enquirer(2) closed and went to law school and became a lobbyistB. World War I 1. Woodrow Wilson-Committee on Public Information (CPI)a) George Creel-head of CPIb) Four Minuteman-delivered 800,000 messagesc) Red Cross from ½ million to 20 million membersd) 350,000 Liberty Bonds to 10 millione) Carl Byoir-associate chairman at 28 of CPIf) Later formed - Byoir and Associates-A&P, RCA,g) John Deere, high standards of serviceC. Booming Twenties 1. Edward Bernaysa) Bernays worked for Creel Committee and coined the term public relations counsel in “Crystallizing Public Opinion and credited the terms to his wifeb) Named One of the 100 Most Influential people in the 20th Century D. World War II 1. Louis McHenry Howea) FDR’s mentor and use of radio2. School administrators, military for public appeals3. Roper and Gallup Poll in 1936 electiona) Clem Whitaker and Leona Baxter4. first political public relations and use of media blitz5. WWII-Office of War Information-later USIAa) use of paid ads to get Americans to produce, ration, etc.E. Postwar Boom 1. USIA-schooled 75,000 professionals2. Baby boom and need for services3. School districts and bond issues4. Many professionals and large growthF. Protest and Empowerment 1. Consumerism, environmentalism, peace, racism, sexism-rose to the top of the public agenda2. 1962-”Silent Spring”-Rachel Carsona) DDT and Kennedy’s Science Advisory Committeeb) Big pesticide companies with PR said we would return to thedark ages3. Ralph Nader-1965a) GM and rollovers…GM investigates private life4. Martin Luther King5. Gloria Steinem-National Women’s Political Caucus in 19716. Vietnam War-Nixon’s Impeachment7. PR shift in textbooks and the field the need to adjust and adapt-no longer the “journalist in residence” approachG. Digital Era1. Information became 0’s and 1’s2. Interneta) Email, search engines, blogs, self-publishingb) Less influence of traditional media and greater diversity of points of view3. Your role in the yet to be written


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