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Lecture V: History/Development (cont.) and Classification & Diagnosis 2/4/15Last LectureOutlineLectureGradeBuddy PSY:2301Lecture V: History/Development (cont.) and Classification & Diagnosis 2/4/15Last LectureWhat is Clinical Psychology (cont.) and History/DevelopmentOutlineI. Important Events, cont: World War IIII. German Psychology during the Nazi PeriodIII. Too often overlooked in our field: IV. Is Beauty in the Eye of the Beholder?V. Cultural Differences in AttractivenessVI. Yu & Shepard (Science, 1989)VII. 4 Reasons why we need to classify psychological disordersVIII. 2 Major Types of Classification SystemsIX. Categorical SystemX. DSM History and DevelopmentXI. Lifetime Prevalence of the DSM DiagnosesXII. DSM-5XIII. Not Otherwise Specified DiagnosisLectureI. Important Events, cont: World War IIA. After WWII, work with children declined because of the adult focusB. US Government asked psychologist tot evaluate potential soldiers for sufficient intellectual and emotional strengths to serve in the army (e.g., creation of IQ tests)C. Following war, additional help from psychology was necessary to treat the war casualties,both from a neuropsychological and psychological perspectiveII. German Psychology during the Nazi PeriodA. The Germans attempted to use psychology to legitimize their racist thoughts and doctrines. Most notable was their use of Gestalt Psychology (e.g., principle of similarity)to legitimize the formation of groups according to the principles of raceIII. Too often overlooked in our field: A. The importance of cultural factorsIV. Is Beauty in the Eye of the Beholder?A. For years, debate has raged over the effectiveness of psychotherapy for ethnic minority patients1. Visuala. Wasp waisti. Look like the bugb. Apple waistV. Cultural Differences in AttractivenessGradeBuddy PSY:2301A. In Westernized cultures, women are considered to have a desirable figure when they havea low waist-to-hip ratio (low WHR – the 7s), resulting in a wasp-waisted figure. In contrast, women with high WHRs tend to be more apple-shaped (the 9s)VI. Yu & Shepard (Science, 1989)A. An interesting study was conducted in which WHR preferences in an isolated culture of Southeast Peru was addressed. The O9 woman ranked the most desirable, and the U7 as least desirable. These Peruvian men asked whether the low WHR women were ill, dying,etc.B. In contrast, men exposed to western media, tend to prefer the women with low WHRsVII. 4 Reasons why we need to classify psychological disordersA. To provide a common nomenclature for communication among professionalsB. Facilitates description and information retrieval (e.g., etiology, symptoms, prognosis, and appropriate treatment)C. Facilitates theory formation and researchD. Useful for creation of public policy, and for targeting certain groups of people for intervention or other types of servicesVIII. 2 Major Types of Classification SystemsA. Categorical Systems1. (DSM)2. Are systems which place people into two groups, those that have a disorder and those who do not3. More used with adultsB. Dimensional Systems 1. (CBCL (Child Behavioral Check List))2. Are systems which describe different levels of the disorder usually based on severity3. More used with children and young adultsIX. Categorical SystemA. Is the most frequently used in the USB. DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-5th edition) JST published by the American Psychiatric Association (Not American Psychological Association)C. Parallel version of the DSM: mental health section of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10; 1990) created by the World Health Organization, and Widely utilized in EuropeX. DSM History and DevelopmentA. DSM-I (1950)1. Glossary of descriptions of 106 diagnostic categoriesB. DSM-n II 19681. Now with 168 diagnostic categoriesa. Reprinted in 1974, and removed “Homosexuality” as a disorderC. DSM-III 19801. Explicit diagnostic criteriaa. Multi-axial systemb. 265 diagnostic categoriesD. DSM-III-R 1987GradeBuddy PSY:23011. 292 diagnostic categoriesE. DSM-IV 19941. 3 stage revisiona. Literature reviewsb. Data re-analysesc. Field Trials2. Developed by committeesF. DSM-IV-TR 20001. Criteria remain the samea. Revisions to descriptions of disorders, based on new research b. >3000 diagnostic categoriesXI. Lifetime Prevalence of the DSM DiagnosesA. 52% no disordersB. 21% one disorderC. 13% two disordersD. 14% three or more disorders1. Full half have no disorders2. Almost a quarter have one disorders3. Comorbidity a. Almost a quarter have two or more disorderXII. DSM-5A. Neurodevelopmental DisordersB. Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic DisordersC. Bipolar and Related DisordersD. Depressive DisordersE. Anxiety DisordersF. Obsessive-Compulsive and Relative DisordersG. Trauma- and Stressor-Related DisordersH. Dissociative DisordersI. Somatic Symptom and Related disordersJ. Feeding and Eating DisordersK. Elimination DisordersL. Sleep-Wake DisordersM. Sexual DysfunctionsN. Gender DysphoriaO. Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct DisordersP. Substance-Related and Addictive DisordersQ. Neurocognitive DisordersR. Personality DisordersS. Paraphilic DisordersT. Other Mental DisordersU. Medication-Induced DisordersV. Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical AttentionXIII. Not Otherwise Specified DiagnosisA. “NOS”GradeBuddy PSY:23011. Used when a person clearly displays abnormal behavior, but does not meet enough criteria for a specific type of diagnosis2. Example: Depressive Disorder, NOSB. We try to avoid this category of diagnoses, when


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