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JMU GHIST 101 - Ancient Greek Society

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GHIST 101 1st Edition Lecture 10 Outline of Last Lecture I. SpartaII. AthensIII. Athenian Democracya. Direct Democracy IV. Athenian Women Outline of Current Lecture I. Aristotle II. Greek Drama a. Tragic Poets III. Peloponnesian WarIV. Alexander the Greata. Hellenistic Society i. Three Kingdomsii. Hellenism V. Greek Philosophiesa. Stoicism VI. Greek Societies a. Euclid These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.b. Archimedesc. HerophilusCurrent Lecture- Aristotle o Student of Plato o Experimental and deductive approach o He introduced logical thinking and reasoning into our knowledge o Natural sciences  “Five elements” – earth, water, air, fire, Aether  Believed the universe was made up of the five elements Aether – invisible material that everything is immersed into - Greek Drama o Annual 5-Day festival  Competition among 8 authors o Tragic poets  Aeschylus (525-456 BC)- Introduced second actor on the stage - Prometheus bound – famous play o Punished by Zeus and visited by a number of gods to persuade him to surrendered himself to Zeus  Sophocles (496-406 BC) - Introduced the third actor on the stage o Allows a more complicated plot - Oedipus Rex – famous play about a king who killed his father and married his mother – he took out his eyes and ran into the forets  Euripides (485-406 BC)- Medeao In this play, women became the main characters o Medea was a wife who was married to Jason o Jason betrayed wife and Medea killed her children o Peloponnesian War (431 – 404 BC)  Tension between Athens and Sparta - Creation of leagues in Athens and Sparta- The purpose of these leagues were to defend themselves from thePersians and it turned into Athenian empire - Constant clashed between the leagues – wanted to have peace - Delian League (Athens) - Peloponnesian League (Sparta) - Thirty Years’ Peace Treaty 446 BC o The treaty failedo After two years, the two major city states wanted to have war  Course of the War- Thucydides and his History of the Peloponnesian War Pericles’ Funeral speech  Plague in Athens 430 BC- Plague happened one year after war - Plague radically weakened power of Athenians - 50,000 died  Alcibiades (450-404 BC)- Commander of Athens- Came up with a grand strategy to attack Sicily and use Sicily as a naval power of the Spartans - Athenian people did not agree with Alcibiades authority - Disaster in Sicily - Lost war  Defeat of Athens Rule of the Thirty Tyrants  Spartan imperialism - Sparta gained control of Athens after the defeat - Alexander the Great o Best commander and was an avid reader  Unified all greek city states  Defeated the Persians many times o Son of Philip II in Macedonia  Student of Aristotle Ascent to the throne, 336 BC o Talented commander  Conquest of Anatolia  Gordian Knot- Used to describe an easy solution to a difficult problem in society - Alexandria, Egypt, 332 BCo Built city o Took 50,000 men with him on his conquest to central and south Asia o Along his way he defeated so many enemies, creating a huge empire - Central Asia and India- Death of Alexander o Hellenistic Society (336 – 31 BC)  Three kingdoms- Seleucid Kingdom- Antigonid Kingdom - Ptolemaic Kingdom  Found a lot of artifacts from kingdoms  Hellenism - Spread of Greek culture and idea - Hellistic world - The Greeks called themselves “Hellas” o Later Greek Philosophies  Stoicism - Founder: Zeno (336-2648 BC)o Teaching is form of materialism – everything was pre-determined, following the natural law o Because there is the natural law, all suffering can be explained  Everything can be calculated – no way to add moralvalues o Need to understand this teaching to understand life - Principle of reality: Logos or Reason - Importance of virtuous life  Epicureanism o Founder: Epicurus o Importance of “pleasure” and a simple life  Also believe in materialism  There is no after life for the soul  Fear that there is no after life, but if you can conquer that fear of no afterlife, you can enjoy life with great strength o Greek Sciences  Euclid (cs. 300 BC)o Elements o Book has been read for thousands of years  Archimedes (287-212 BC) o Great mathematician  Herophilus (335-280 BC) o First anatomist o He was so brave and opened eyes and founded different layers in our eyes o Realized difference between arteries and


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