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NCSU COM 112 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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COM 112 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 10Ch. 1: About Communication-What is communication?o Process through which people use messages to generate meanings acrosschannels, media, and contexts-Context of communication1. Temporal (time)a. Generational: different age groups at same timeb. Relational: relational development and what info we dole out throughout time periodsc. Sequence/Utterance: an utterance takes on a different meaning depending on surrounding situation2. Social-Psych (different roles we occupy): Examples-student, sibling, daughter/son, etc.a. Social roles differi. Student vs. Sibling: students have more respect to higher ups and more professional; siblings are more comfortable in their interactions3. Cultural4. Gender-What “messes up” the process?o Noise: disruption of meaning or message construction1. Physical: external to usa. Actual soundb. Talking on cell and signal is dropped2. Physiological: internala. Tooth pulledcan’t talkb. Broke handcan’t write3. Psychological: values that affect meanings4. Semantic: do we understand the wordsa. Jargonb. Slang-Interpersonal Communication: dynamic interaction where messages significantly influence each other (thoughts, emotions, behaviors, relationships) *mutual influenceo Why? Goal attainment1. Self-presentation: present ourselves in the way we want to be seen2. Relationship: building, maintaining, or ending3. Instrumental: practical goals (could I borrow something, etc.)-Communication Competence: communicating in ways that are effective and appropriate1. Ethics: effective but can be inappropriate2. Self-awareness (self-monitoring)3. Adaptability: make changes4. Empathy5. Cognitive Complexity: willingness to consider multiple behaviors and messages (explanations)Ch. 2: Communication and Culture-Cultureo Doesn’t have geographic boundaryo Created when people come togethero Learnedo Communication will create sense of identity and how it’s sharedo Variableo Enculturation: learned culture (like from birth) including world view, thinking, and ways of relating EX. Start at NC Statewhat does it mean to be a state student is learnedo Acculturation: become accustomed to and embrace appropriate behaviors of culture of groups we’re NOT apart ofo 6 Dimensions:1. Power distance: where is the concentration of power/who makes decisionso High-power distance: distinct authorities; concentrated among very few peopleo Low-power distance: doesn’t allow any group to hold all power; everyone is equal in power2. Gender role separationo Masculine culture: values traditionally masculine characteristics;greater separation between men and women **Doesn’t necessarily mean men are in charge in every masculine cultureo Aggressiono Dominanceo Successo Different in what men can do and women can doo Feminine culture: values traditionally feminine characteristics; more equality among men and women3. Defining the selfo Individualistic culture: people’s primary responsibility is to themselves **when autonomy need conflicts with affiliationautonomy takes precedenceo Collectivist culture: people’s primary responsibility is to their families, company, and communities; affiliation to significant in-groups takes precedence4. Uncertainty Orientationo Uncertainty-avoiding: avoid situations that are unstructured, unclear, unpredictableo Uncertainty-accepting: open to accepting people whose behaviors and ideas are different from our own 5. Time Orientation: attitudes toward timeo Monochronic culture: time is linear; it is a thing in and of itself; values promptness and scheduleso Polychronic culture: time is not linear; promptness varies according to relationship; culture more about relationships rather than effectiveness6. Context Orientationo Meaning derived by setting or wordso Cultures vary as to whether meanings are more explicit or implicit-Gender and communicationo Sex=biological characteristics with which we are borno Gender=learned attitudes and behaviors that characterize people of one sex or the other Gender role=set of expected behaviors, traits, or actions that society associates Gender identity=One’s perception of him or herself as either masculine or feminine Gender role identity=Subset of traits, behaviors and characteristicsof male and female gender roles that individuals actually displayo How it affects communication Expressive vs. Instrumental- Expressivefeminine prioritize relationship goal- Instrumentalmasculine prioritize task goal More vs. Less Powerful Speech- More powerfulmasculine- LessfeminineCH. 3: Communication and the Self-Components of Self1. Self-concepti. Your overall perception of who you areii. Multi-facetedsome people have more than others (help us adapt to situationsiii. Subjectivesense of who you are (not objective) mediated through your communication with othersiv. Cognitive conservatism1. Self will be relatively stable2. Hold onto ideas of who we are even in evidence of contrary v. How do we develop self-concept?1. Biology source: accounts for 50% of variance (physical characteristics)2. Looking glass self: based on bio, people respond to us in certain ways which translates into how we think of self a. Our beliefs about how others see usb. To have self-concept you need at least one other person in your life3. Familya. Tell us who we are relationally b. Set up what is normalc. Attachment Theory4. Cultural dimensions-who you should be according to society5. Your evaluations-Attachment Theoryo Working Models: Secure: consistent, positive, reassuring, supportive care Anxious-avoidant: consistent, disinterested, rejecting care Anxious-resistant: inconsistent, unpredictable careo Adult Attachment Styles Secure Dismissive Fearful  Preoccupied-Cultural Teachingso Generalized other: collection of cultural expectationso Includes nationality, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, age (establishes expectations)-Communication and self-concepto Self-fulfilling prophecy: our behaviors create particular outcomeso Self-handicapping strategies: explanations we give to others when we’re in situation when self-concept is threatened-Self-esteem: your subjective evaluation of your value and worth as a person-Communicating the self o Self-disclosure: revealing private info about self to others (necessary to develop relationships) Enables us to make predictions and connections We have control of how info is shared (our


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