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CORNELL PLPA 2010 - Mycotoxins

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PLPA 2010 1st Edition Lecture 5Outline of Last Lecture I. Lecture 5Outline of Current Lecture II. MycotoxinsCurrent Lecture- Mycotoxins: o Turkey X Disease- caused by a fungus called Aspergillus flavuso Aflatoxin discovered- named after Aspergillus flavus Discovered at MIT in the 1960’s Very deadly for not only turkeys but lots of organisms Common in peanuts, corn, wheat It’s the only federal regulated mycotoxin in the US: 20 ppb for most human foods and .5 ppb for milk Limit for “finishing” (last days before it is slaughtered) meat animals is up to 300 ppb Only need a very small amount needed to do harm Short term: acute toxicity  Long Term: causes liver cancer If you have Hepatitis B, exposure to aflotoxins increase cancer risk 30x Not all Aspergillus flavus strains make the toxin Less aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus when competing microbes are present Substrate affects toxin productiono Diamond Dog Food Outbreak In 2005, more than 75 dogs died in US because of aflotoxins- Liver damage, cancero Mycotoxins are small molecules produced by molds Not essential for a fungus to live, but might give it an advantage Toxic to vertebrates in low concentrations Diverse: over 500 mycotoxins are knowno Impact: the Food and Agriculture Organizaiton (FAO) estimates that 25% of the world’s crops are affected by myotoxins- Reduced yield due to fungal infectionsThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Loss of stored productso Fusarium: molds that grow mainly on wheat, barley, oats, corn- Not quite as toxic as aflatoxin- 1200 ppb vs. 20 ppb Zeralenone: mimics action of estrogen, causes abnormal development of female sex organs Trichothecenes: T2 causes alimentary toxic aleukia Deoxynivalenol: (vomitoxin) current problem in US grain crops Fumonisins: cause equine leucoencephalalomalacia (aka Hole in the HeadDisease of horses)- Linked with esophageal cancer may arise from consumption of contaminated grain or beer made from that graino Ochratoxin: can lead to kidney failure Can be in your house in the heating duct, coffeeo Tall Fescue: toxin that grows in the US and Canada Causes limb lameness, gangreneo Neotyphodium: good for grass- protects it form insects and helps to stay healthyo What can we do? Control the fungi in the field Control to fungi in storage Control insects in the field and storage Test grains, peanut butter, juice etc. for


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