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CHEM 1110 1st Edition Lecture 7Outline of Last Lecture I. Stoichiometrya. ConversionsII. Limiting Reactants b. Theoretical yield c. Percent yield Outline of Current Lecture I. Properties of Aqueous Solutions a. Electrolytes in waterb. Ionic compoundsc. Molecular compounds d. Electrolytes II. Precipitation Reactionsa. Precipitate b. Solubility rulesc. Double-Displacement Reaction These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.III. Acids, Bases, and Neutralization Reactions IV. Concentrations of Solutions V. Solution Stoichiometry and Chemical AnalysisVI. Oxidation-Reactions Current LectureI. Properties of Aqueous Solutions a. Electrolytic Properties of Aqueous Solutions i. Pure water is very poor conductor of electricityii. The substance dissolved in water may cause the solution to conduct electricityiii. Conductivity of a solution indicates the presence of ions iv. No ions in solution, no conduction, non-electrolytesv. Very little ions, weak conduction, weak electrolytesvi. Great number of ions, strong conductions, strong electrolytesb. Ionic Compounds (nonmetal + metal) in Water i. Water will pull out individual ions from the solid crystal ii. Dissociation: the process of separating the individual ions by solvation 1. These compounds are electrolytesiii. Hydrated (solvated) ion 1. Solvation can be a very powerful phenomenon 2. Not all ionic compounds dissolve significantly in water 3. Some molecular compounds dissociate in water c. Molecular Compounds (nonmetal + nonmetal) in Water i. Many soluble molecular compounds do not ionize in water 1. These compounds are nonelectrolytes d. Electrolytesi. Strong Electrolyte- a substance that dissociates nearly 100% into ions in water 1. All soluble ionic compounds 2. Common strong acids starting with Ha. HCl, H2SO4, HNO33. Common strong bases ii. Weak electrolyte- s substance that ionizes only slightly in water1. Molecular compounds that are weak acids and basesa. Acetic acids - C2H4O2 b. Base- NH3II. Precipitation Reactions- a reaction that yields an insoluble solid producta. Precipitate: an insoluble solid formed by a reaction in solution b. Solubility rules for Ionic compounds in water i. Soluble Ionic Compounds1. All common compounds of alkali metal ions (Li, Na, K) and ammonium ion (NH4) are soluble 2. All common nitrates (NO3) and acetates (CH3COO or C2H3O2) andmost perchlorates (ClO4) are soluble 3. All common chlorides (Cl), bromides (Br), and Iodides (I) are soluble, except those of Ag, Pb, Cu, and Hg24. All common sulfates (SO4) are soluble, except those of Ca, Sr, Ba, Ag, Pb, Hg2ii. Insoluble Ionic Compounds1. All common metal hydroxides are insoluble, except for those of the alkali metal cations, NH4, Ca, Sr, Ba2. All common carbonates (CO3) and phosphates are insoluble, except for those of the alkali metal cation and NH43. All common sulfides (S) are insoluble except those of the alkali metal cations, NH4, Ca, Sr, and Bac. Double-Displacement Reactions i. Also called metathesis or exchange reaction ii. AX + BY ->AY + BXd. Writing ionic equations i. Molecular equations ii. Total ionic equations 1. (aq) compounds are called spectator ions iii. Net Ionic Equation-1. Omit spectator


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