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UNC-Chapel Hill PSYC 250 - Motor and Sensory development

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Psyc 250 1st Edition Lecture 7 Outline of Last Lecture I. Physical growth and changeII. BrainIII. SleepIV. HealthOutline of Current Lecture II. Motor developmentIII. Sensory and perceptual developmentCurrent LectureII. Motor development- The dynamic system view- Arnold Gesello A developmentalist who through observations revealed how people develop their motor skillso Children develop motor skills in a fixed order and within specific time frameso Motor development comes about through the unfolding of a gentic plan or maturationo Infants assemble motor skills for perceiving and actingo Perception and action are coupled according to this theoryo To develop motor skills, infants must perceive something in the environment thatmotivates them to act and use their perceptions to fine-tune their movementso Mastering a motor skill requires infants active efforts to coordinate several components of the skillo Infants explore and select possible solutions to the demands of a new tasko Infants assemble adaptive patterns by modifying their current movement patternso Universal milestones, such as crawling, reaching and walking are learned throughthe process of adaption - Reflexes: built-in reactions to stimuli; they govern newborn’s movements which are automatic and beyond the infants controlo Rooting reflex: occurs when the infants cheek is stroked or the side of the mouth is touched. The infant turns its head toward the side that was touched in an apparent effort to find something to suckThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.o Sucking reflex: occurs when newborns automatically suck an object placed in their moutho Moro reflex: occurs in response to a sudden, intense noise or movemento Grasping reflex: occurs when something touches the infant’s palms- Gross motor skillso The development of posture: a dynamic process that is linked with sensory info in the skin, joints, and muscles which tell us where we are in spaceo Learning to walk: locomotion and postural control are closely linked, especially inwalking uprighto The first year: motor development milestones and variation-the timing of the milestones may vary by as much as 2 to 4 moths and experiences can modify the onset of these accomplishmentso Motor accomplishments of the first year bring increasing independenceo Infants explore their environment more extensively and initiate interactionwith others more readilyo Toddlers become more motorically skilled and mobile- Fine motor skillso Involve finely tuned movemento Grasping a toy, using a spoon, buttoning a shirto Doing anything that requires finger dexterity deomstrates fine motor skillso Infants have hardly any control over fine motor skills at birtho During the first two years of life, infants refine how they reach and graspIV. Sensory and perceptual development- Sensation: occurs when info interacts with sensory receptors-the eyes, ears, tongue, nostrils and skino The sensation of hearing occurs when waves of pulsating air are collected by the outer ear through the bones of the inner ear to the auditory nerveo The sensation of vision occurs as rays of light contact the eyes, become focused on the retina and are transmitted by the optic nerve to the visual centers of the brain- Perception: is the interpretation of what is sensedo The physical energy transmitted to the retina of the eye might be interpreted as aparticular color, pattern, or shape depending on how it is perceived - The ecological view: much of the research on perceptual development has been guided by the ecological view of Eleanor and James J. Gibsono They aregue that we do not have to take bits and pieces of data from sensations and build up representations of the world in our mind. Instead, our perceptual system can select from the rich information that the environment itself


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