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NFS 053 1st Edition Lecture 8Outline of Last Lecture I. Fruits and Vegetablesa. Definitionsb. Classificationsc. Different parts of the planti. Definitionsd. Preparing Vegetablesi. General Guidelineii. Techniquese. Random NotesOutline of Current Lecture I. GrainsII. CerealsIII. Structure of grainsIV. Cereals and grainsV. Cereal grain usesVI. Flours from grainsVII. Transforming grains into dishesVIII. PastaIX. Cooking GrainsX. GelatinizationXI. Random notesCurrent LectureI. Grainsa. 1. Obsolete: single or small hard seed2. A seed or fruit of a cereal grassb. The seeds or fruits of various food plants including the cereal grasses and in commercial and statutory usage other plants (soybeans)c. Plant producing grainThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.II. Cerealsa. Synonym to grainsi. a. a plant (as a grass) yielding starchy grain suitable for food; also: its grain b. a prepared foodstuff of grain (as oatmeal or cornflakes)III. Structure of grainsa. Bran- 14.5% of the kernel, high content of fiber/ mineral ashb. Endosperm- 83% of the kernel, mostly starch and some proteinc. Germ- 2.5% of the kernel, contains fat, protein, ash, vitamin CIV. Cereals and grainsa. The seeds of certain plantsb. Seeds are the essential part of plants for the development and persistence of thehuman speciesV. Cereal grain usesa. Wheat- flour (hard and soft wheat), cereals, pasta (durum wheat), and bulguri. Bulgur is wheat that is boiled then dried and usually crackedb. Corn- flour (tortillas), masa flour, hominy, cornmeal, cerealsc. Rice- cereals, long/ short grain, converted and instantd. Oats-cereals, oatmeal, oatrime. Rye- pumpernickel and medium rye flourf. Barley- cereals and pear barleyg. Titricale- cross between wheat and rye, more lysine and hardier than wheat, made into flourh. Buckwheat- fruit of a leafy plant not a true graini. Others include millet, sorghum, faro, spelt, amaranth, quinoaVI. Flours from grainsa. There is evidence from prehistoric times of people figuring out how to treat grains in order to remove tough outer layersb. A breakthrough in human diets occurred when people discovered methods and developed technologies for grinding or milling grains into floursVII. Transforming grains into dishesa. Wheatb. Wheat flourc. Doughd. PastaVIII. Pastaa. Typically made with durum wheat and waterb. Macaroni is a term used for all dried pastas and comes in many shapes: spaghetti, linguini, fettuccini, elbow, lasagna, shell, spiral, ect.c. Noodles have added egg to the doughd. Whole wheat, gluten-free, flavored, high protein, fresh- all different typese. Couscous- pasta made to look like a grainIX. Cooking Grainsa. Different techniques to release starch in order to create varying dishesb. Pasta- lots of boiling waterc. Risotto- little water at a time, short grain riced. Pilaf- rinse before cooking, short grain riceX. Gelatinizationa. The cooking of starch in a liquidb. Swellingc. Clearingd. Thickeninge. Starch- amylose, amylopectinXI. Random notesa. Positive aspect of eating plants = soluble and non-soluble fiberb. Negative aspects of plants= alkaloids are toxicc. Seeds contain proteins and


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